cephalosporin


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Related to cephalosporin: cephalosporin C

cephalosporin

 [sef″ah-lo-spor´in]
any of a large group of broad-spectrum antibiotics from Acremonium (formerly Cephalosporium), a genus of soil-inhabiting fungi. Cephalosporins are similar in structure and antimicrobial action to penicillin. The cephalosporins have been classified by “generations” according to general features of antimicrobial activity, with successive generations having increasing activity against gram-negative organisms and decreasing activity against gram-positive organisms.

ceph·a·lo·spo·rin

(sef'ă-lō-spōr'in),
Antibiotic produced by a Cephalosporium, but after the antibiotic was discovered the name Cephalosporium was changed to Acremonium.

cephalosporin

/ceph·a·lo·spo·rin/ (sef″ah-lo-spor´in) any of a group of broad-spectrum, penicillinase-resistant antibiotics from Acremonium, related to the penicillins in both structure and mode of action. Those used medicinally are semisynthetic derivatives of the natural antibiotic cephalosporin C. First-generation cephalosporins have a broad range of activity against gram-positive organisms and a narrow range of activity against gram-negative organisms; second-, third-, and fourth generation agents are progressively more active against gram-negative organisms and less active against gram-positive organisms.

cephalosporin

(sĕf-ə-lə-spôr′ĭn)
n.
Any of various beta-lactam antibiotics, derived from the fungus Acremonium chrysogenum or made semisynthetically, used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections.

cephalosporin

Infectious disease Any of a family of broad-spectrum tetracyclic triterpene antibiotics derived from Cephalosporium spp, which are similar chemically and in mechanism of action to penicillin Indications Skin and soft tissue infections, RTIs, UTIs, STDs, meningitis, endocarditis, septicemia of unknown portal of entry, anaerobic infections, polymicrobial infections Pharmacokinetics Absorbed orally, excreted by the dustributed in tissues Adverse reactions Hypersensitivity, rash, serum sickness, acute tubular damage. See Fourth-generation cephalosporin.
Cephalosporin generations
1st
IV agents–Cephalothin, cephaloridine
2nd
Oral agents, which had a longer half-life
3rd
↑ antibacterial spectrum to include H influenzae, anaerobic bacteria, eg Bacteroides fragilis
4th
Not all authors use the term ; further; ↑ antibacterial spectrum to include Pseudomonas species<</dd>
.

ceph·a·lo·spo·rin

(sef'ă-lō-spōr'in)
Antibiotic produced by a Cephalosporium, but after the antibiotic was discovered the name Cephalosporium was changed to Acremonium.

cephalosporin

One of a range of antibiotics first obtained from a Cephalosporium fungus found in the sea near a sewage outflow. Their chemical structure is very similar to that of the penicillins and many semisynthetic forms have been developed. Their toxicity is low and they are effective against a wide range of organisms. Unfortunately, the spelling of cephalosporin drug names shows an apparently arbitrary distribution of ‘ceph’, ‘cep’ and ‘cef’, with a strong tendency to the latter, assisted by the recent requirement to adopt European nomenclature regulations.

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.

ceph·a·lo·spo·rin

(sef'ă-lō-spōr'in)
Antibiotic produced by a Cephalosporium.
References in periodicals archive ?
For severe penicillin or cephalosporin allergy in pregnancy, use gentamicin 240 mg, single intramuscular dose plus azithromycin 2 g, single oral dose.
The natural of cephalosporin C acylase catalyzed the CPC to 7-ACA directly in a very low efficiency (14,15,16), significant substrate inhibition (14), and product inhibition (14).
Yvonne et al6 reported a cephalosporin resistant, ESBL producing Salmonella Typhi from the blood of an Iraqi woman in Germany.
Cephalosporin has been found as the most prescribed group, followed by Fluoroquinolones.
The discovery of cephalosporins is credited to Italian pharmacologist and politician Giuseppe Brotzu.
Cephalosporins were only used in breeding flocks so it seems a bit odd to extrapolate Dutch figures to the British industry as we never used cephalosporins in broiler flocks," the British Poultry Council (BPC) said.
Cephalosporin order of prohibition goes into effect.
Laboratories that conduct gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility testing are requested to promptly notify the ordering clinician and local STD control program of isolates with elevated cephalosporin MICs (cefixime MIC [greater than or equal to] 0.
In 2008, FDA issued and then revoked an order that prohibited "extra - label" use of cephalosporin in food - producing animals with no exceptions.
A new FDA ban on cephalosporin use in food animals would largely apply to cattle.
In an order issued last month, the FDA said that by April it will prohibit unapproved uses of cephalosporins in cattle, swine, chickens, and turkeys.
For the inpatient group, the following data were recorded: age, gender, primary diagnosis, chronic underlying conditions, presence of co-morbidity, total hospital stay, intensive (pediatric or neonatal) care stay, history of receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, history of cephalosporin usage (before hospitalization), total parenteral nutrition, indwelling catheter, surgical intervention, urinary catheterization and presence of neutropenia.