6% were due to cephalopelvic
disproportion (CPD) and 28.
dagger]) Nonpreventable complications: breech delivery, cephalopelvic
disproportion, cord prolapse, placenta previa, abruption placenta, or premature rupture of membranes.
Human birth was constrained by the need to pass a head that was enlarging over geologic time through a pelvis that was being extensively modified by the requirement for bipedality, such that cephalopelvic
disproportion is not an uncommon cause of both maternal and fetal death today where Cesarean sections are not readily available.
Cesarean sections were performed for failure to progress, eclampsia, and cephalopelvic
Teen pregnancies are usually more complicated and include common medical problems such as poor weight gain, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and cephalopelvic
The remaining had been delivered by cesarean section, which was indicated for breech presentation and cephalopelvic
Relative contraindications include abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, maternal heart disease, multiple gestation, evidence of cephalopelvic
disproportion, and a breech position.
Typically, in developing countries, the immediate cause of fistula is obstructed labor related to cephalopelvic
disproportion (a situation in which the mother's pelvis is too small to allow for safe passage of the baby's head).
Physicians often attribute this to cephalopelvic
Women at high risk are typically primigravidas who experience a prolonged and difficult labor and deliver larger than usual babies and women whose deliveries are characterized by cephalopelvic
Malpresentation, Malposition, Cephalopelvic
Disproportion and Obstetric Procedures,
CPD = cephalopelvic
disproportion; NRFHR = non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing; IOL = induction of labour; CS = caesarean section.