Han, "Central pattern generator
and feedforward neural network-based self-adaptive gait control for a crab-like robot locomoting on complex terrain under two reflex mechanisms," International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, vol.
Optimization of artificial central pattern generators
with evolutionary algorithms.
The central pattern generator
(CPG) is the part which generates the rhythmic oscillations required for the locomotion in almost all vertebrates.
Pinter, "Evidence for a spinal central pattern generator
in humans," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.
Kolta, "Central pattern generators
for speech and orofacial activity," in Handbook of Mammalian Vocalization, S.
Evidence that the central pattern generator
for swimming in Tritonia arose from a non-rhythmic neuromodulatory arousal system: implications for the evolution of specialized behavior.
Much motor behavior, from a human serving a tennis ball to a fish swimming, is regulated by these central pattern generators
, which generate a motor pattern or a repetitive action.
Ijspeert, "Design methodologies for central pattern generators
: an application to crawling humanoids," in Proceedings of the Robotics: Science and Systems, pp.
Target-specific regulation of synaptic efficacy in the feeding central pattern generator
of Aplysia: potential substrates for behavioral plasticity?
The results of this study suggest that the swimming behavior of Melibe leonina is produced by a central pattern generator
(GPO) capable of expressing a swimming motor program in the absence of sensory feedback.
(1998) and Schmitz (2001) state that in the stick insect there is little evidence for a central pattern generator
. Instead sensory information derived from leg position and ground contact, together with six different coupling mechanisms, allows selection between swing networks and stance networks.
Many forms of locomotion in both invertebrates and vertebrates result from the activity of central pattern generator
(CPG) networks of neurons (see review by Marder and Calabrese ).