macro- and micro-asperities of rotor surface and stochastic oscillation in contact zone arising because of friction coefficient fluctuation between rotor surface and contacting friction element which will generate electric charges in central electrode 9 because of direct piezo-effect;
besides the electric charges in central electrode 9 (which value will correlate with the stochastic oscillation in contact zone) the longitudinal oscillation of piezoelectric plate at the oscillatory node (I form, [[delta].
(4) is movable and can change its position.
Conversely, the circular electrodes generate less intense particle flows, while allowing particles to enter the dielectrophoretic trap from directly above the central electrode
area, but also via the interelectrode gaps.
This capacitance probe operated at 38 MHz and had a central electrode together with an annular electrode.
In the vertical direction, most of the electric field intensity is similar, whereas it is greater near the lower end of the central electrode, which is regarded as the 'end effect' phenomenon.
Three cylindrically symmetric electrodes maintain the electric fields of the spectrometer with the central electrode
at [approximately equal to]30 kV and the end electrodes at ground.