Peripheral and central chemoreceptor control of ventilation during exercise in humans.
Involuntary ventilatory rate is determined by pH-sensing central chemoreceptors of the surface of medlla oblougata and by oxygen- and carbon dioxide-sensing peripheral chemoreceptors, with the impulse transferred to the glossopharyngeal nerve (nervus IX) and the vagus nerve (nerves X).
The most important or dominant sensors for the control of breathing or respiratory drive are the central chemoreceptors in the medulla of the brain, and peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies in the arterial blood system.
Although all gases readily diffuse, or more accurately transfer, though the blood brain barrier onto the central chemoreceptors, the resultant changes in ventilation may take up to a one minute.
The central chemoreceptors
, located in the medulla near the dorsal group of respiratory neurons are sensitive to the amount of carbon dioxide concentration in the blood.
The marked metabolic acidosis was producing substantial stimulation of the central chemoreceptors
33) In the lower brainstem central chemoreceptors
are mostly responsible for the body's response to carbon dioxide.
Other receptors known as central chemoreceptors
are found in the brain.
Etiology is linked to a lack of sensitivity of central chemoreceptors
to carbon dioxide, resulting in abnormal responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia (Pia Villa et al.
It is likely that these two conditions have different effects on the autonomic nervous system; hypoxemia is acting mainly on peripheral chemoreceptors while hypercapnia is mainly stimulating central chemoreceptors
Regulation of breathing primarily falls on the central centers, the central chemoreceptors
on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata.
An acute rise in PaCO2 causes a ventilatory response primarily through the central chemoreceptors
(approximately 80 percent) with the remainder attributable to the peripheral chemoreceptors.