central apnea


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apnea

 [ap´ne-ah]
cessation of breathing, especially during sleep. The most common type is adult sleep apnea. Central apnea in which there is failure of the central nervous system drive to respiration sometimes occurs in infants younger than 40 weeks after the date of conception.
adult sleep apnea frequent and prolonged episodes in which breathing stops during sleep. Diagnosis is confirmed by monitoring the subject during sleep for periods of apnea and lowered blood oxygen levels. Sleep apnea is divided into three categories: (1) obstructive, resulting from obstruction of the upper airways; (2) central, caused by some pathology in the brain's respiratory control center; and (3) mixed, a combination of the two (see above).
Treatment. Obstructive and mixed types are amenable to therapy. Since many sleep apnea patients are overweight, weight loss improves the symptoms. Central sleep apnea is the most difficult to control. Medications to stimulate breathing have not proven beneficial. Mechanical ventilation or administration of oxygen during the night may help some patients.

The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is nasal continuous positive airway pressure, which the patient uses during sleep; the positive pressure exerted prevents the airway from obstructing. Another method that may be tried is a dental appliance to move the jaw forward during sleep. In the most refractory cases, such as when an anatomical airway obstruction can be demonstrated, surgery to remove it may be performed after consultation with a surgeon experienced in evaluating and treating such obstructions. Another treatment that is occasionally used is insertion of a special type of tracheostomy tube that can be plugged during the day for normal use of the upper airway and opened at night to bypass upper airway obstruction
central apnea (central sleep apnea) see adult sleep apnea.
deglutition apnea a temporary arrest of the activity of the respiratory nerve center during an act of swallowing.
initial apnea a condition in which a newborn fails to establish sustained respiration within two minutes of delivery.
late apnea cessation of respiration in a newborn for more than 45 seconds after spontaneous breathing has been established and sustained.
mixed apnea see adult sleep apnea.
obstructive apnea (obstructive sleep apnea) see adult sleep apnea.
primary apnea cessation of breathing resulting when a fetus or newborn infant is deprived of oxygen; exposure to oxygen and stimulation usually restore respiration.
prolonged infantile apnea sudden infant death syndrome.
secondary apnea a period of time following primary apnea during which continued asphyxia of the fetus or newborn, with a fall in blood pressure and heart rate, necessitates artificial ventilation for resuscitation and reestablishment of ventilation.
sleep apnea transient periods when breathing stops during sleep; see adult sleep apnea.

cen·tral ap·ne·a

apnea as the result of medullary depression that inhibits respiratory movement.

cen·tral ap·ne·a

(sen'trăl ap'nē-ă)
Apnea as the result of medullary depression, which inhibits respiratory movement.

cen·tral ap·ne·a

(sen'trăl ap'nē-ă)
Apnea due to medullary depression that inhibits respiratory movement.
References in periodicals archive ?
Recorded events Median Interquartile events/h range Sleep Obstructive apneas 6.2 3.4-58 Central apneas 0.4 0.15-0.92 Mixed apneas 1.5 0.4-2.5 Hypopneas 25.6 20.1-34.7 Wakefulness Obstructive apneas 17.7 4.9-11.38 Central apneas 0.7 0.08-1.07 Mixed apneas 1.7 0.92-2.4 Hypopneas 22 12.7-26 Apnoeas were defined as a > 90% airflow decrease for [greater than or equal to] 10 sec; hypopnoeas were defined as a > 50% airflow reduction for [greater than or equal to] 10 sec associated with a decrease of [greater than or equal to] 3% in oxygen saturation [51].
For example, apnea of prematurity and some cases of central apnea may be treated with caffeine.
When the craniofacial malformations are also associated with abnormalities of the cerebral cortex or brain stem, then other sleep-disordered breathing patterns, such as central apnea and hypoxia, can occur.
This technique is now used in patients whose breathing is impaired to the point that their blood carbon dioxide level is elevated, as happens in patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, certain neuromuscular diseases, and central apnea.
* Mixed apnea occurs when the sleeper experiences a brief period of central apnea normally followed by a longer period of obstructive apnea.
The apnea setting is usually set at 20 sec, as central apneas of this duration or longer are considered clinically significant (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn 2003; Stokowski 2005).
So every time one of our patients falls asleep they have a short central apnea or hypopnea to let the C02 build up and every time they arouse, they breathe faster to get rid of the C02 ...
In 2003, physicians at the Intermountain Sleep Disorders Center in Salt Lake City described ataxic breathing, central apnea, sustained hypoxemia, and other abnormalities in three patients on long-term opioid therapy for pain (Chest 2003:123:632-9).
Apnea is further divided to describe types of pauses in breathing, such as central apnea, obstructive apnea and mixed apnea.
Cobedding healthy, preterm twins significantly decreases their episodes of central apnea, said Dr.
[3] Millman et al reported a resolution of central apnea in a male patient once a euthyroid state was achieved.
Later, Andy would be diagnosed with a seizure disorder called Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (see side bar) along with central apnea, and severe reflux.

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