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(3,4) Surgical robotics in THA not only helps to optimize component position, but also has the advantages of improving femoral offset, leg length discrepancy, and restoring the hip's center of rotation. (5-8) The MAKOplasty[R] Total Hip Application (Stryker Corp, Mahwah, New Jersey, USA) is a surgical robot that provides a user-guided process and navigated plan to help obtain accurate results in terms of positioning and alignment.
The hip joint center of rotation was set based on the Coda model (Codamotion, Charnwood Dynamics Ltd., Rothley, UK), and the knee and ankle centers were established as the mean distance between the femur epicondyles and malleolus, respectively.
The farther from the center of rotation the brake pads can be, the more leverage they have to slow the rotor and thus the vehicle.
Reduction angle (RA) and subluxation angled (AS), during the Ortolani maneuver, were determined by filming and subsequent measurement of the obtained image by goniometer; Maximum degree of hip flexion and extension were measured by goniometer applied directly over the hip joint, the fixed arm was arranged over the pelvic axis and the movable arm arranged over the femoral axis, with the center of rotation positioned over the target joint (JAEGGER et al., 2002); Range of motion (ROM) was determined by subtracting hip extension and flexion values.
While the examination on the cross sections of the specimens from STL method showed typical features of torsional failure, such as circular abrasion marks and fatigue dimples at the center of rotation, the RTL method showed ruptured aspects with multiple levels of fracture surfaces and gross catastrophic features without any circular abrasion marks (Figure 1).
A new function added to lathing helps align solid models for turning: the operator defines the center of rotation for the part and selects the appropriate geometry.
Similarly, In Multi-Finger interaction technique; reported by Mike and Balakrishna (2003) and Jason et al., (2009), two fingers were used for rotation where pivot finger was to identified the center of rotation and the second finger for the angle of rotation.
The main biomechanical advantages of this reverse prosthesis according to Grammont's concept are as follows: (1) the large ball offers a greater potential arc of motion and more stability than a small ball, (2) the small lateral offset (absence of neck) places the center of rotation directly in contact with the glenoid surface and reduces the torque at the point of fixation of the glenoid component, (3) medializing the center of rotation recruits more of the deltoid fibers for elevation or abduction, and (4) lowering the humerus increases tension on the deltoid.
For determining the axis position of the industrial robot it is necessary to determine a point on the axis (joint center of rotation) and the direction (orientation) of this axis.
When recess and key are in contact, the radial component of the bearing force is directed towards the center of rotation.
2.22 m, 3) Distance center of rotation of the arm excavator from the center of the rear axle min.

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