The researchers discovered that the human cell nucleus
has a previously undetected type of motion: its nuclear envelope flickers, or fluctuates, over a period of a few seconds.
AZT, for example, tries to block HIV before it can reproduce in the T cell nucleus
The DNA in the cell nucleus
is packaged into chromatin in a form that prevents access to genetic information.
They further showed that Yap1 is inactivated by a known tumor suppressor called alpha-catenin, which binds to Yap1 and keeps it outside the cell nucleus
However, the team altered some of the mice so that the extra catalase went into the cell nucleus
Understanding repair of DNA in specific regions of the packaged structure in the cell nucleus
is crucial to understanding why certain DNA lesions are not repaired for long times in human cells.
While current methods involve placing a foreign gene in the cell nucleus
, CTT transforms the genome of the approximately 100 chloroplasts within the cell.
However, research revealed that Rous sarcoma virus takes a detour through the cell nucleus
before going to the cell membrane.
They suggest transferring copies of mtDNA's 13 genes into the safer environs of the cell nucleus
, where the rest of the mitochondrial genes reside.
Goldstein, Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the George Washington University School of Medicine in Washington, DC and RegeneRx's Chief Scientific Advisor, "The ability of TB4 to enter the cell nucleus
offers a very interesting possibility that it could be used as a carrier or 'chaperone molecule' to allow manipulation of cells at the nuclear level.
The study suggests that drugs targeting a specific subpopulation of estrogen receptors found outside the cell nucleus
might activate the cardiovascular benefits of estrogen without increasing cancer risk.
Ancient bones don't often yield mitochondrial DNA, which is located outside the cell nucleus
and inherited from the mother, Serre notes.