53% (8/ 13) respectively in Ceftriaxone, Amoxicillin + Sulbactam, Ceftizoxime
and Ceftriaxone + Tazobactam treated groups of animals (Table 1).
Antibiotics used in these studies were amikacin (Ak) amoxicillin (Am) ampicillin (A) carbenicillin (Ca) cefixime (Cfm) ceftizoxime
(Cxm) ceftriaxone (Cz) cephalothin (Cl) chloramphenicol (C) ciprofloxacin (Cip) co-trimoxazole (Co) enoxacin (E) erythromycin (Er) gentamicin (G) kanamycin (K) nalidixic acid (Na) penicillin (P) streptomycin (S) sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SxT) and tetracycline (T).
Symptoms Laboratory findings Treatment High fever, new ESR 10 mm/h, WBC 7070 Ceftizoxime
6 g/d + nodules m[m.
7] As surrogate antibiotics for cefixime we used the CLSI breakpoints for the parenteral third-generation cephalosporins, ceftizoxime
and ceftriaxone, for GPC in clusters and for P-haemolytic streptococci, respectively.
Most ESBL are mutant of classical TEM-1, TEM-2 and SHV-3 [beta]-lactamase types and, unlike these parents enzymes, ESBL hydrolyses oxyimino-aminothiazolyl cephalosporins such as cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime
, ceftazidime cefpirome and cefeprine as well as penicillins and other cephalosporins except cephamycins (2).
The routine antibiotic sensitivity tests were put up for aminoglycosides [amikacin (30 [micro]g), gentamicin (10 [micro]g), netilmicin (30 [micro]g), tobramicin (10 [micro]g)], cephalosporin's [cefoperazone (75 [micro]g), cefepime (30 [micro]g), ceftazidime (30 [micro]g), ceftriaxone (30 [micro]g), ceftizoxime
(30 [micro]g)], floroquinolones [ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), gatifloxacin (5 [micro]g), lomefloxacin (10 [micro]g)], carbapenems [imipenem (10 [micro]g), meropenem (10 [micro]g)], chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g) and piperacillin/tazobactum (100/10 [micro]g).
Alternative regimens: Spectinomycin (not available in the United States) 2 g in a single dose IM or cephalosporin single-dose regimens (including ceftizoxime
500 mg IM, or cefoxitin 2 g IM administered with probenecid 1 g orally, or cefotaxime 500 mg IM).
Alternative parenteral single-dose regimens for urogenital and anorectal gonorrhea include 500 mg ceftizoxime
, 2 g cefoxitin with I g oral probenecid, or 500 mg cefotaxime.
section]) Other single-dose cephalosporin regimens that are considered alternative treatment regimens against uncomplicated urogenital and anorectal gonococcal infections include ceftizoxime
500 mg IM; or cefoxitin 2 g IM, administered with probenecid 1 g orally; or cefotaxime 500 mg IM.
or Single-dose cephalosporin regimens (other than ceftriaxone 125 mg IM) include ceftizoxime
(500 mg IM), cefoxitin (2 g IM with probenecid 1 g orally), and cefotaxime (500 mg IM).
Alternatives include intravenous cefotaxime, 1 g every 8 hours; IV ceftizoxime
, 1 g every 8 hours; or IM spectinomycin, 2 g twice daily Intravenous ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are good choices for patients allergic to [beta]-lac-tam antibiotics.
Lamivudine would be artifactually increased in the presence of cefotetan and ceftizoxime
, and didanosine would be artifactually increased in the presence of ceftizoxime