sodium is a broad spectrum third generation cephalosporin for antimicrobial treatment for Staphylococcal mastitis.
A highest of 94.1% resistance was observed to penicillin, followed by 27.4% to cloxacillin, 26.4% to ampicillin, 15.6% to erythromycin, and 12.7% to ceftizoxime
. Low resistance rate was observed to cefoxitin (1.9%), methicillin (3.9%), oxacillin (4.5%), vancomycin (4.9%), and ciprofloxacin (5.8%).
The isolates showed highest resistance against penicillin followed by carbenicillin ampicillin tetracycline erythromycin ceftizoxime
kanamycin co-trimoxazole piperacillin amoxicillin amikacin streptomycin nalidixic acid gentamicin chloramphenicol cephalothin and ceftriaxone.
Pus culture was positive for various organisms like Enterococcus Fecalis 15 cases (sensitive to Amikacin, Ceftizoxime
, Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin), Acinetobacter 13 cases (sensitive to Amikacin, cefotaxime, ampicillin-Sulbactam), Staphylococcus Aureus 10 cases (sensitive to vancomycin, Ciprofloxacin, Nafcillin, Oxacillin), Streptococcus Pyogenes 12 cases (sensitive to Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftazidime), Proteus one case (sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Ceftazidime, Ampicillin-Sulbactam, Amikacin) and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa 3 cases (sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Ceftazidime, Amikacin, Ceftriaxone).
and clindamycin combination (two weeks) were switched to TMP/SXT plus imipenem (one month) for treating one of those fastidious microorganisms including Rhodococcus, Nocardia, Actinomyces, Peptococcus, etc., which was suspected as a causative agent based on the Gram smear.
Patients with CAP received treatment with antibiotics such as cefuroxime, ceftizoxime
, and clarithromycin according to their condition.
Comparison of oxacillin cefoxitin, ceftizoxime
, and moxalactam disk diffusion methods for detection of methicillin susceptibility in staphylococci.
aeruginosa strains were validated following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).9 The following antimicrobial agents were tested: amikacin (30 ug), ampicillin (10 ug), cefalotin (30 ug), ceftriaxone (30 ug), ciprofloxacin (5 ug), cotrimoxazole (1.25/23.75 ug), gentamicin (10 ug), tetracycline (30 ug), carbinicillin (100 ug), imipenem (10 ug), nalidixic acid (30 ug), nitroforantoin (300 ug ), norfloxacine (10 ug), cefepim (30 ug), cefdinir (30) ceftizoxime
(30 ug), cefotaxime (30 ug) cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (30/10 ug), ceftazidime (30 ug), and ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (30/10 ug).
 As surrogate antibiotics for cefixime we used the CLSI breakpoints for the parenteral third-generation cephalosporins, ceftizoxime
and ceftriaxone, for GPC in clusters and for P-haemolytic streptococci, respectively.
Most ESBL are mutant of classical TEM-1, TEM-2 and SHV-3 [beta]-lactamase types and, unlike these parents enzymes, ESBL hydrolyses oxyimino-aminothiazolyl cephalosporins such as cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime
, ceftazidime cefpirome and cefeprine as well as penicillins and other cephalosporins except cephamycins (2).
The routine antibiotic sensitivity tests were put up for aminoglycosides [amikacin (30 [micro]g), gentamicin (10 [micro]g), netilmicin (30 [micro]g), tobramicin (10 [micro]g)], cephalosporin's [cefoperazone (75 [micro]g), cefepime (30 [micro]g), ceftazidime (30 [micro]g), ceftriaxone (30 [micro]g), ceftizoxime
(30 [micro]g)], floroquinolones [ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), gatifloxacin (5 [micro]g), lomefloxacin (10 [micro]g)], carbapenems [imipenem (10 [micro]g), meropenem (10 [micro]g)], chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g) and piperacillin/tazobactum (100/10 [micro]g).
Alternative regimens: Spectinomycin (not available in the United States) 2 g in a single dose IM or cephalosporin single-dose regimens (including ceftizoxime
500 mg IM, or cefoxitin 2 g IM administered with probenecid 1 g orally, or cefotaxime 500 mg IM).