ceftazidime


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Related to ceftazidime: ceftriaxone, Cefepime, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin

ceftazidime

 [sef´ta-zĭ-dēm]
a broad-spectrum third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic effective against many different types of infections caused by susceptible organisms.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

ceftazidime

Fortaz, Fortum (UK), Tazicef

Pharmacologic class: Third-generation cephalosporin

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Interferes with bacterial cell-wall synthesis and division by binding to cell wall, causing cell to die. Active against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with expanded activity against gram-negative bacteria. Exhibits minimal immunosuppressant activity.

Availability

Powder for injection: 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g, 6 g

Premixed containers: 1 g/50 ml, 2 g/50 ml

Indications and dosages

Skin infections; bone and joint infections; urinary tract and gynecologic infections, including gonorrhea; respiratory tract infections; intraabdominal infections; septicemia
Adults and children ages 12 and older: For most infections, 500 mg to 2 g I.V. or I.M. q 8 to 12 hours. For pneumonia and skin infections, 0.5 to 1 g I.V. or I.M. q 8 to 12 hours. For bone and joint infections, 2 g I.V. or I.M. q 12 hours. For severe and life-threatening infections, 2 g I.V. q 8 hours. For complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), 500 mg q 8 to 12 hours. For uncomplicated UTIs, 250 mg I.M. or I.V. q 12 hours.
Children ages 1 month to 12 years: 30 to 50 mg/kg I.V. q 8 hours
Neonates younger than 4 weeks: 30 mg/kg I.V. q 12 hours

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Off-label uses

• Febrile neutropenia

• Prophylaxis of perinatal infections

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins or penicillins

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal impairment, hepatic disease, biliary obstruction, phenylketonuria

• history of GI disease

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

• Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity testing as necessary before starting therapy.

• Reconstitute powder for injection with sterile water, following manufacturer's directions for amount of diluent to use.

• For I.V. injection, dilute in sterile water as directed, and give single dose over 3 to 5 minutes. Inject into large vein; rotate injection sites.

• For intermittent I.V. infusion, dilute further with 100 ml of sterile water or another compatible fluid, such as normal saline solution or dextrose 5% in water. Infuse over 30 minutes.

• Don't dilute with sodium bicarbonate.

• For I.M. injection, reconstitute with sterile water, bacteriostatic water, or 0.5% or 1% lidocaine hydrochloride.

• When giving I.M., inject deep into large muscle mass.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, confusion, hemiparesis, lethargy, paresthesia, syncope, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability (with increased drug blood levels in renally impaired patients), seizures, encephalopathy

CV: hypotension, palpitations, chest pain, vasodilation

EENT: hearing loss

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, oral candidiasis, pseudomembranous colitis

GU: vaginal candidiasis, nephrotoxicity

Hematologic: lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, bleeding tendency, hemolytic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow depression

Hepatic: hepatic failure, hepatomegaly

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: urticaria, maculopapular or erythematous rash

Other: chills, fever, superinfection, I.M. site pain, anaphylaxis, serum sickness

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aminoglycosides, loop diuretics: increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Chloramphenicol: antagonism of ceftazidime's effects

Probenecid: decreased excretion and increased blood level of ceftazidime

Drug-diagnostic tests. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, eosinophils, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels

Hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased values
Coombs' test, urinary 17-ketosteroids, nonenzyme-based urine glucose tests (such as Clinitest): false-positive results

Drug-herbs. Angelica, anise, arnica, asafetida, bogbean, boldo, celery, chamomile, clove, danshen, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, horse chestnut, horseradish, licorice, meadowsweet, onion, papain, passionflower, poplar, prickly ash, quassia, red clover, turmeric, wild carrot, wild lettuce, willow: increased risk of bleeding

Patient monitoring

Monitor for extreme confusion, tonic-clonic seizures, and mild hemiparesis when giving high doses.

• Assess CBC and kidney and liver function test results.

• Monitor for signs and symptoms of superinfection and other serious adverse reactions.

• Be aware that cross-sensitivity to penicillins may occur.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to report reduced urine output, persistent diarrhea, bruising, and bleeding.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and herbs mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

ceftazidime

(sĕf-tăz′ĭ-dēm′)
n.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, C22H22N6O7S2, that is given intravenously and is especially effective against some species of Pseudomonas.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

ceftazidime

A CEPHALOSPORIN ANTIBIOTIC drug. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Fortum and Kefadim.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann
References in periodicals archive ?
In the similar study conducted by Rong WANG, MM, Shangwei et al, [13] showed that 70.1% were resistant to Ampicillin, 44.2% were resistant to Cefuroxime, 31.2% were resistant to Ceftazidime, 20.8% were resistant to Cefepime, and 75.3% were resistant to Cefoxitin.
Only one isolate is sensitive to ceftazidime but it is detected as ESBL producer.
The multidrug resistance pattern showed that among the bacterial strains found to be resistant to ceftriazone and ceftazidime about 109 (44%) and 108 (43.5%) were resistant to two, three, or four drugs, respectively.
ESBLs producing Klebsiella pneumoniae showed 100% resistance to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and aztreonam.
This group showed high susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime, with annual resistance rates <10%, whereas resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, imipenem, gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin was recorded in at least 20-30% of isolates in most years.
aeruginosa the values of MIC obtained by agar dilution were in range of 64-1024, 32-128, 16-256, 16-256, and 16-32 ug/ml for ceftazidime, amikacin, meropenem, tazocin and ciprofloxacin, respectively versus the MIC values obtained by broth microdilution as 32-1024, 16-128, 8-256, 16-256, and 16-32 ug/ml for ceftazidime, amikacin, meropenem, tazocin and ciprofloxacin, respectively.
Different combinations of ZnO nanoparticles and ceftazidime (as indicated in Table1) were tested on PAO1 and Res1 P.
During the next 2 days, the chicken was hospitalized and received ceftazidime (20 mg/kg q12h, with a saline flush before and after the infusion, and the VAP was locked with 2 mL of heparin-saline after the second flush.
It consists of ceftazidime, a third-generation, antipseudomonal cephalosporin, that is an established treatment for serious Gram-negative bacterial infections, and avibactam, a next generation, non-beta lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor.
When ceftazidime is combined with avibactam, the spectrum of activity is expanded to include organisms producing these [beta]-lactamases [2-4].