cefprozil


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cefprozil

 [sef-pro´zil]
a semisynthetic second-generation cephalosporinantibiotic with a wide range of antimicrobial activity, used in the treatment of otitis media and infections of the respiratory and oropharyngeal tracts, skin, and soft tissues; administered orally.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cefprozil

Apo-Cefprozil, Cefzil, Ran-Cefprozil, Sandoz Cefprozil

Pharmacologic class: Second-generation cephalosporin

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Interferes with bacterial cell-wall synthesis and division by binding to cell wall, causing cell to die. Active against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with expanded activity against gram-negative bacteria. Exhibits minimal immunosuppressant activity.

Availability

Powder for suspension: 125 mg/5 ml, 250 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 250 mg, 500 mg

Indications and dosages

Uncomplicated skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes
Adults and children ages 13 and older: 250 to 500 mg P.O. q 12 hours or 500 mg P.O. daily for 10 days

Pharyngitis or tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes
Adults and children ages 13 and older: 500 mg P.O. daily for at least 10 days

Acute bronchitis; acute bacterial chronic bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis
Adults and children ages 13 and older: 500 mg P.O. q 12 hours for 10 days

Acute sinusitis caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis
Adults and children ages 13 and older: 250 mg P.O. q 12 hours for 10 days; for moderate to severe infections, 500 mg P.O. q 12 hours for 10 days
Children ages 6 months to 12 years: 7.5 mg/kg P.O. q 12 hours for 10 days; for moderate to severe infections, 15 mg/kg P.O. q 12 hours for 10 days

Otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis
Children ages 6 months to 12 years: 15 mg/kg P.O. q 12 hours for 10 days

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins or penicillins

• Renal failure

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal or hepatic impairment

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

• Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity testing as necessary before starting therapy.

• Give drug with food.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, hyperactivity, hypotonia, insomnia, confusion, seizures

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, pseudomembranous colitis

GU: hematuria, vaginal candidiasis, genital pruritus, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy

Hematologic: eosinophilia, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, bone marrow depression, hypoprothrombinemia

Hepatic: hepatic dysfunction

Skin: toxic epidermal necrolysis, diaper rash, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Other: allergic reactions, carnitine deficiency, drug fever, superinfection, serum sickness-like reaction, anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aminoglycosides: increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium, histamine2-receptor antagonists: increased cefprozil absorption

Probenecid: decreased excretion and increased blood level of cefprozil

Drug-diagnostic tests. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, eosinophils, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cells in urine: increased levels

Blood glucose, Coombs' test, urine glucose tests using Benedict's solution: false-positive results

Platelets, white blood cells: decreased counts

Drug-food. Moderate- or high-fat meal: increased drug bioavailability

Patient monitoring

Stay alert for life-threatening reactions, including anaphylaxis, serum sickness-like reaction, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and pseudomembranous colitis.

• Monitor neurologic status, particularly for signs and symptoms of impending seizures.

• Monitor kidney and liver function test results and assess fluid intake and output.

• Monitor CBC with white cell differential, prothrombin time, and bleeding time. Watch for signs and symptoms of blood dyscrasias, especially hypoprothrombinemia.

• Monitor temperature. Stay alert for signs and symptoms of superinfection.

Patient teaching

Advise patient to immediately report rash, bleeding tendency, or CNS changes.

• Teach patient to recognize signs and symptoms of superinfection, and instruct him to report these right away.

• Tell patient to take drug with food.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and foods mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

cefprozil

(sĕf-prō′zĭl)
n.
A broad-spectrum oral cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat respiratory and skin infections.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Serag, "Stability indicating methods for the analysis of cefprozil in the presence of its alkaline induced degradation product," Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol.
They administrated two second-generation antibiotics (cephalosporin and cefprozil) in healthy individuals and showed that antibiotics altered the microbiome of healthy volunteers in an interindividual manner, allowing the emergence of potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae--in a subgroup of patients--probably related to a decreased initial gut microbiome diversity in those individuals.
([double dagger]) Per 10% increase in cephalosporin prescribing during the previous year; includes cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefdinir, cefditoren pivoxil, cefixime, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefprozil, ceftibuten, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin, cephradine, and loracarbef.
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on Mueller-Hinton agar (Merck, Germany) using disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer's) technique according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines The following: Cefotaxime 30ig, NalidixicAcid 30ig, Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole 30ig, Ceftazidime 30ig, piperacillin-tazobactam , Co-Amoxiclav 10ig, Nitrofurantoin 300ig, Imipenem 10ig, Meropenem 10ig, Ampicillin 30ig, Cefoxitin 30ig, Gentamicin10ig, Cefixime 5ig, Cefepime 30ig, Carbenicillin 100g, Cefprozil 30ig and Tetracycline 30ig.Among 436 samples tested, 50 samples of bacteria were resistant to antibiotics which were isolated.
Short-course therapy with several antibiotics including the cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefprozil, cefpodoxime) has been shown to be non-inferior to a 10-day course of penicillin
Cefprozil and Cefuroxime) are used primarily for respiratory tract infections because they are more effective against H.
Empirical antibiotic which can be selected for oral administration include amoxycillin clavulanate, TMP-SMX, cefixime, sefpodoxim, cefprozil, cefuroxime axetil and cefalexin.
In regions where there is a high prevalence of [beta]-lactamase resistance, amoxicillin with clavulanate or second or third-generation cephalosporins (e.g., cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefprozil) have been reported to provide broader coverage.