cefadroxil


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cefadroxil

 [sef″ah-drok´sil]
a semisynthetic first-generation cephalosporinantibiotic effective against a wide range of gram-positive and a very limited number of gram-negative bacteria.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cefadroxil

Baxan (UK), Novo-Cefadroxil (CA)

Pharmacologic class: First-generation cephalosporin

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Interferes with bacterial cell-wall synthesis, causing cell to rupture and die

Availability

Capsules: 500 mg

Oral suspension: 250 mg/5 ml, 500 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 1 g

Indications and dosages

Pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci

Adults: 1 g/day P.O. or 500 mg P.O. b.i.d. for 10 days

Children: 30 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses q 12 hours for 10 days

Skin infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci

Adults: 1 g/day P.O. or 500 mg P.O. q 12 hours

Children: 30 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses q 12 hours

Urinary tract infections caused by Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella species

Adults: 1 to 2 g/day P.O. in divided doses q 12 hours

Children: 30 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses q 12 hours

Dosage adjustment

• Renal insufficiency

• Elderly patients

Off-label uses

• Bone and joint infections

• Unspecified respiratory infections

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins or penicillins

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal impairment, phenylketonuria

• history of GI disease (especially colitis)

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

• Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity testing as necessary before starting therapy.

• Give with or without food.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, lethargy, paresthesia, syncope, seizures

CV: hypotension, palpitations, chest pain, vasodilation

EENT: hearing loss

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, oral candidiasis, pseudomembranous colitis

GU: vaginal candidiasis, nephrotoxicity

Hematologic: lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, bleeding tendency, hemolytic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow depression

Hepatic: hepatic failure, hepatomegaly

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: urticaria, maculopapular or erythematous rash

Other: chills, fever, superinfection, anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aminoglycosides, loop diuretics: increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Probenecid: decreased excretion and increased blood level of cefadroxil

Drug-diagnostic tests. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, eosinophils, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels
Coombs' test, urinary 17-ketosteroids, nonenzyme-based urine glucose tests (such as Clinitest): false-positive results

Hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased values

Patient monitoring

• Assess baseline CBC and kidney and liver function test results.

• Monitor for signs and symptoms of superinfection and other serious adverse reactions.

• Be aware that cross-sensitivity to penicillins may occur.

• With long-term therapy, obtain monthly Coombs' test.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take drug with food or milk if GI upset occurs.

• Instruct patient to complete entire course of therapy even if he feels better.

• Tell patient to report signs and symptoms of allergic response and other adverse reactions, such as rash, easy bruising, bleeding, severe GI problems, wheezing, or difficulty breathing.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

cefadroxil

(sĕf′ə-drŏk′səl)
n.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, C16H17N3O5S, that is given orally.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

cefadroxil

A CEPHALOSPORIN ANTIBIOTIC drug. A brand name is Baxan
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Subsequent reports, which attributed up to 10% cross-reactivity between the 2 drug classes, involved these same first-generation cephalosporins plus cephalexin and cefadroxil and a second-generation drug, cefamandole.
When patients with a positive history of penicillin-allergy received first-generation cephalosporins, which share a chemical side chain similar to penicillin or amoxicillin (cephalothin, cephaloridine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefazolin, plus the early second-generation cephalosporin, cefamandole), they exhibited a significant increased risk of an allergic reaction to the cephalosporin.
(26) In another study of clinical cross-reactivity between amoxicillin and cefadroxil in patients allergic to amoxicillin with good tolerance of penicillin, only 12% had an immediate allergic reaction to cefadroxil, despite the 2 drugs sharing an identical side chain.
Penicillin-allergic patients have indeed shown an increased incidence of allergic reactions to cephalothin, cephaloridine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefazolin, and cefamandole.