cefaclor


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cefaclor

 [sef´ah-klor]
a semisynthetic broad-spectrum second-generation cephalosporinantibiotic administered orally in treatment of otitis media and infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin and soft tissues.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cefaclor

Apo-Cefaclor (CA), Distaclor (UK), PMS-Cefaclor (CA), Raniclor

Pharmacologic class: Second-generation cephalosporin

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Interferes with bacterial cell-wall synthesis, causing cell to rupture and die

Availability

Capsules: 250 mg, 500 mg

Oral suspension: 125 mg/5 ml, 187 mg/5 ml, 250 mg/5 ml, 375 mg/5 ml

Tablets (extended-release): 500 mg

Indications and dosages

Uncomplicated skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus

Adults and children ages 16 and older: 375 mg P.O. (extended-release tablet) q 12 hours for 7 to 10 days

Pharyngitis and tonsillitis not caused by Haemophilus influenzae

Adults and children ages 16 and older: 375 mg P.O. (extended-release tablet) q 12 hours for 10 days

Chronic bronchitis and acute bronchitis not caused by H. influenzae

Adults and children ages 16 and older: 500 mg P.O. (extended-release tablet) q 12 hours for 7 days

Otitis media caused by staphylococci; lower respiratory tract infections caused by H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, and S. pneumoniae; pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes; urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and coagulase-negative staphylococci

Adults and children ages 13 to 17: 250 mg P.O. q 8 hours. For severe infections, 500 mg P.O. q 8 hours.

Children: 20 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses q 8 hours. For serious infections, 40 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses q 8 hours. Maximum dosage is 1 g/day.

Dosage adjustment

• Renal insufficiency

• Elderly patients

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins or penicillins

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal impairment, phenylketonuria

• history of GI disease (especially colitis)

• emaciated patients

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

• Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity testing as necessary before starting therapy.

• Be aware that cross-sensitivity to penicillins may occur.

• Give extended-release tablets with food to enhance absorption.

• Don't give antacids within 2 hours of extended-release form.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, lethargy, paresthesia, syncope, seizures

CV: hypotension, palpitations, chest pain, vasodilation

EENT: hearing loss

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, oral candidiasis, pseudomembranous colitis

GU: vaginal candidiasis, nephrotoxicity

Hematologic: lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, bleeding tendency, hemolytic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow depression

Hepatic: hepatic failure, hepatomegaly

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: urticaria, maculopapular or erythematous rash

Other: chills, fever, superinfection, anaphylaxis, serum sickness

Interactions

Drug-drug. Aminoglycosides, loop diuretics: increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Antacids: decreased absorption of extended-release cefaclor tablets

Chloramphenicol: antagonistic effect

Probenecid: decreased excretion and increased blood level of cefaclor

Drug-diagnostic tests. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, eosinophils, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels
Coombs' test, urinary 17-ketosteroids, nonenzyme-based urine glucose tests (such as Clinitest): false-positive results

Hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased values

Patient monitoring

• Assess CBC and kidney and liver function test results.

• With long-term therapy, obtain monthly Coombs' test.

• Monitor for signs and symptoms of superinfection and other serious adverse reactions.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take drug with food or milk to reduce GI upset.

• Advise patient to complete entire course of therapy even if he feels better.

• Tell patient to report signs and symptoms of allergic response and other adverse reactions, such as rash, easy bruising, bleeding, severe GI problems, or difficulty breathing.

• Instruct patient to avoid taking antacids within 2 hours of extended-release cefaclor.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

cefaclor

(sĕf′ə-klôr′)
n.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, C15H14ClN3O4S, that is given orally.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

cefaclor

A broad-spectrum antibiotic. One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that can be taken by mouth. Brand names are Distaclor and Keftid.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
pneumoniae isolates was sensitive to Cefaclor antibiotic.
Several medications are associated with SSLR, but cefaclor is most frequently implicated in 0.2% of treated children.
Can cranberry juice be a substitute for cefaclor prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux?
Ten pharmacologically active ingredients are listed in the mandatory DMFs, including acetaminophen, cefaclor, cefazolin (sodium), dextromethorphan HBr, diclofenac sodium, gliclazide, metformin HCl, risperidone, tamsulosin HCl, and valproic acid.
On the other hand, formulations which are manufactured in inadequate amount are nalidixic acid (300 mg/5 ml), norfloxacin (100 mg/5 ml), ampicillin (125 mg/5 ml, 60 ml), cloxacillin (125 mg/5 ml), cephalexin (125 mg/5 ml, 60 ml), cefadroxil (250 mg/5 ml, 60 ml), cefaclor (187 mg/5 ml, 60 ml), cefixime (200 mg/5 ml, 60 ml), roxithromycin (50 mg/5 ml, 60 ml), cotrimoxazole (200 + 40 mg/5 ml, 60 ml, 100 ml), and metronidazole (200 mg/5 ml, 60 ml).
Different techniques for NP surface synthesis and functionalization with antimicrobial drugs through covalent or noncovalent interactions have been described, such as amoxicillin-coated AuNPs [15], vancomycin-capped AuNPs [16], and ampicillin-, streptomycin-, and kanamycin-conjugated AuNPs [17], as well as cefaclor [18] and aminoglycoside-conjugated AuNPs [19].
Oral cefaclor therapy was started for suspected systemic infection by S.
Percentage resistance against cephalosporin like ceftriaxone, cefaclor and ceftiofur was low both in case of backyard poultry and commercial broilers.
In 2008, the launch of Cefaclor under the Carlsbad label represented a major shift and the first step in building a trusted national generics brand.
aureus (n = 57) R (%) (n = 128) R (%) R (%) Tetracycline 36.8 28.2 32.0 Gentamicin 31.6 14.1 21.9 Penicillin 96.5 97.2 96.9 Oxacillin 100 0.0 44.5 Clindamycin 71.9 66.2 68.8 Erythromycin 71.9 67.6 69.5 Ciprofloxacin 36.8 15.5 25.0 Linezolid 0 0 0 Rifampicin 10.5 0 4.7 Trimethoprim/ 28.1 19.7 23.4 sulfamethoxazole Nitrofurantoin 0 0 0 Cefaclor 40.4 1.4 18.8 Chloroamphenicol 15.8 5.6 10.2 Imipenem 17.5 0 7.8 Mupirocin 1.8 0 0.8 Dalfopristin/ 0 0 0 quinupristin Vancomycin 0 0 0 Table 3--The frequencies of virulence genes among S.
[21] Cefaclor, cefixime and loracarbef are less active in vitro against S.