pes cavus

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 [pes] (pl. pe´des) (L.)
1. foot.
2. any footlike part.
pes abduc´tus talipes valgus.
pes adduc´tus talipes varus.
pes ca´vus talipes cavus.
pes hippocam´pi a formation of two or three elevations on the ventricular surface of the hippocampus.
pes pla´nus (pes val´gus) flatfoot.
pes va´rus talipes varus.

tal·i·pes ca'v·us

an exaggeration of the normal arch of the foot.

pes cavus

See clawfoot.

pes cavus

High arch Orthopedics A foot with a high longitudinal–toe to heel–arch Etiology Neuromuscular diseases Clinical Changed muscle tone, pain, especially when stress is placed on the arch, significant disability

pes cavus

(pes kā'vŭs)
Condition characterized by increased height of the foot's medial longitudinal arch.
Synonym(s): clawfoot, claw foot.


(pes, pez) (pe'dez) plural.pedes [L.]
The foot or a footlike structure.

pes abductus

Talipes valgus.

pes adductus

Talipes varus.
Enlarge picture

pes anserinus

1. The network of branches of the facial nerve as it passes through the parotid gland
Enlarge picture
2. The combined tendinous expansions of the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles at the medial border of the tibial tuberosity. See: illustration

pes cavus

Talipes arcuatus.

pes contortus

Talipes equinovarus.

pes equinovalgus

A condition in which the heel is elevated and turned laterally.

pes equinovarus

A condition in which the heel is turned inward and the foot is plantar flexed.

pes equinus

A deformity marked by walking without touching the heel to the ground. Synonym: talipes equinus

pes gigas


pes hippocampi

The lower portion of the hippocampus major.

infraorbital pes

Terminal radiating branches of the infraorbital nerve after exit from the infraorbital canal.

pes planus


pes valgus

Talipes valgus.

pes varus

Talipes varus.

pes cavus


pes cavus

high-arched or claw foot. An acquired or congenital condition, which results from plantarflexion of the forefoot relative to the rearfoot, with elevation of the longitudinal arch. Associated with clawing of the toes, depression of the first metatarsal and hindfoot varus. May be the result of underlying neuromuscular disease. Can present with pain, difficulty in getting suitable shoes or obvious foot deformity. In sport, good podiatry input and correctly fitted shoes will minimize secondary effects, which are seen primarily in weight-bearing sports.

pes cavus

; cavus foot idiopathic or neurological, fixed or mobile foot deformity; characterized by increased sagittal height of medial longitudinal arch, and variable degrees of tendo Achilles contracture (functional ankle equinus) and non-reducible rearfoot varus, forefoot equinus, partial or total forefoot valgus, plantarflexion and varus adduction (toward midline of body) of first metatarsal, hallux abductovalgus, triggered hallux (+ associated soft-tissue and nail lesions), clawing of lesser toes (+ associated soft-tissue and nail lesions), decreased plantar contact area/increased plantar pressures + hyperkeratotic lesions (at first + fifth or 2/3/4 metatarsophalangeal joints and basal fifth metatarsal areas), plantar fasciitis, heel pain and plantar enthesiopathy, and difficulty in obtaining shoes that fit/do not traumatize the foot; neurological causes of pes cavus include poliomyelitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, spina bifida occulta, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, hereditary motor and sensorimotor neuropathies, Friedreich's ataxia and spinal cord tumours (see Table 1 Figure 1; Box 1)
Box 1: Characteristics of pes cavus
  • Limited or reduced subtalar joint range of motion, especially frontal-plane motion

  • General reduced range of motion of all foot joints

  • Increased angulation of the calcaneum, metatarsals and phalanges relative to the support surface

  • Decreased angulation of the talus and navicular, relative to the support surface

  • Retraction of the toes, and trigger deformity of first toe

  • Inversion of the rearfoot and rearfoot instability

  • Reduced plantar contact area and increased forces in those areas of the plantar skin that are in contact with the ground surface

  • Decreased or lost ankle joint dorsiflexion

  • Signs of other neuromuscular pathologies in the patient or in other members of the patient's family

Table 1: Diagnosis of foot function from shoe wear marks
Normal wear Outsole and heel
Posterolateral heel wear
Heavier wear across sole at treadline, especially at 1 and 2 MTPJs
Heavier wear distal to 1 MTPJ due to hallux toe off
Uniform discoloration of heel seat
Lateral discoloration at waist (corresponding to lateral midsole)
Distal discoloration due to toe pulps, 1cm from end of insole
Lining of upper
Even discoloration of posterior, medial and lateral areas of quarters
No unevenness of wear due to foot moving within shoe
No indentation or wear at lining of toe puff
No part of the upper should overhang the sole or welt
No distortion of the upper
Shallow, oblique crease corresponding to metatarsal formula and the treadline of the outsole
Symmetrical quarters
Hallux limitus/rigidus Outsole and heel
Excessive posterolateral heel wear
Excessive wear and/or spin wear marks under 2 and 5 MTPJs secondary to abductory twist
Minimal wear under 1 MTPJ but greater wear under IPJ hallux
Reduced toe spring Insole/insock
Discoloration of lateral heel seat
Heavy discoloration and wear below 2 and 5 MTPJs
Minimal discoloration and wear below 1 MTPJ
Discoloration and wear at distal phalanx of hallux
Lining of upper
Discoloration of lateral area of quarters
Excess wear of lateral vamp area in 5 MTPJ area
Excess wear of medial dorsal vamp at 1 MTPJ consistent with osteophyte formation at 1 MTPJ
Bulging of upper at the lateral/posterior quarters in the heel area
Bulging of lateral vamp over the outsole consistent with prolonged rearfoot inversion
Increased obliquity of transverse crease
Dorsal bulging of vamp in area of 1 MTPJ
Lateral drift of throat of shoe and distal drift of lateral facing in relation to medial facing
Pes cavus Outsole and heel
Excessive posterior (transverse) heel wear
Excessive wear at treadline
Minimal wear proximal and distal to treadline
Exaggerated toe spring
Heavy discoloration and wear of heel seat
Heavy discoloration and wear below 1 and 5 MTPJs
Discoloration and wear at pulps of toes, due to clawing
Lining of upper
Discoloration of medial, lateral and posterior areas of quarters
Wear of tongue lining
Wear of lining of upper toe box due to retracted toes
Bulging of upper at the posterior quarters in the heel area
Wear of upper margin of back stay
Bulging/stretching of anterior quarters due to tarsal ‘humping’
Facings diverge proximally
Deep transverse crease
Dorsal bulging of vamp over toes
Pes planovalgus Outsole and heel
Posterolateral heel wear
Anterior medial heel wear
Collapse of shoe waist (shank may break)
Excessive wear under 2, 3 and 4 MTPJs
Excessive wear along distal medial area of sole
Excessive wear under 2, 3 and 4 MTPJs
Excessive wear at medial waist area
Excessive wear at 3, 4 and 5 toe pulps
Lining of upper
Discoloration of medial, lateral and posterior areas of quarters
Excess wear of medial toe box area
Bulging of upper at the medial, lateral/posterior quarters in the heel area
Bulging of medial quarter over outsole
Shallow transverse crease
Medial bulging of vamp in area of 1 MTPJ if hallux abductovalgus is present
Bulging of lateral toe box secondary to clawing of lesser toes
Medial drift of throat of shoe and distal drift of medial facing in relation to lateral facing

Note: Wear marks are always less marked in shoes made of synthetic materials.

MTPJ, metatarsophalangeal joint; IPJ, interphalangeal joint.

Figure 1: Rearfoot varus. A, uncompensated rearfoot varus. B, compensated rearfoot varus. C, pattern of hyperkeratotic lesions in the compensated foot. D and E, orthotic and shoe modification to control compensation. This article was published in Neale's Disorders of the Foot, Lorimer, French, O'Donnell, Burrow, Wall, Copyright Elsevier, (2006).
References in periodicals archive ?
Plantar fasciitis were related to cavus foot (Simons et al.
The incidence of stress fractures in cavus foot is believed to be secondary to the more rigid, reduced shock absorbency of this type of foot (Korpelainen et al.