Color photographs illustrate each step in surgical techniques for addressing conditions of the hallux, metatarsalgia and lesser toe deformity, adult acquired flatfoot deformity, cavovarus
foot deformity, ankle arthritis, tendon disorders, stress fractures, and trauma.
Lateral ankle ligament reconstruction Ankle arthroscopy with debridement Microfracture of osteochondral defects Reconstruction of cavovarus
foot Reconstruction of planovalgus foot Excision of osteophytes Of the entire cohort of patients undergoing ankle MRI, 58 of 347 (17%) patients were eventually indicated for surgery.
However, among different foot characteristics, cavovarus
deformity, increased foot width, and increased calcaneal eversion range of motion are reported as the most commonly parameters which have been related to LAS (34).
Cavovarus occurs in S1 level myelomeningocele patients owing to an imbalance between the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles.
Orthopaedic problems for each neurological level Level % Deformity Thoracic (paraplegic) 23 Scoliosis Kyphosis Equinus Mid-lumbar (L3,4) 30 Hip dislocation Internal and external tibial torsion Clubfoot Congenital vertical talus Ankle and hindfoot valgus Low lumbar/calcaneus (L5) 17 Calcaneus Ankle valgus Hindfoot valgus Sacral/'normal' (S1) 30 Cavovarus foot
A subset of patients, however, are subject to increased failure rates, including those with long-standing instability, poor tissue quality, history of previous repair, generalized ligamentous laxity, and cavovarus foot deformity.
Risk factors for failure and recurrent instability after operative procedure are ligamentous laxity, longstanding instability, high functional demand, and a cavovarus foot.
and calcaneocavus foot deformities have also been reported (Bigos & Coleman, 1984).
 Deformities, including equinus, club foot, valgus and cavovarus
, can be corrected by a range of operations.