In 26 of 32 cases, a 5 F angled catheter (Cook Medical) or 7 F "MONT" catheter (Cook Medical) was advanced under fluoroscopic guidance via femoral access and an inferior vena cavogram
was performed to confirm patency.
confirms the stenosis, and the trans-stenotic pressure gradient is measured before and after angioplasty.
The treatment was considered to have been completed successfully if the stent was in the correct position and showed a normal contrast medium outflow in the cavogram
, and the collaterals had markedly receded (Fig.
The cavotomy was reclamped and a cavogram was performed.
An additional advantage of transjugular balloon placement is the ability to perform an intra-operative completion cavogram to ensure complete removal of the thrombus.
A single plane digital subtraction cavogram
was acquired, notable for the absence of reflux into normal hepatic veins at the level of the venous confluence (Fig.
Cavograms have revealed that in 15% of the cases there are abnormalities that significantly affect the placement of the filter.
Are routine inferior vena cavograms necessary before Greenfield filter placement?