, ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are useful diagnostic tools (3).
Penile ultrasound, cavernosography
, and MRI can be helpful in some cases [1, 2, 8].
Doppler ultrasonography and positive contrast cavernosography
used to evaluate a persistent penile hematoma in a bull.
Investigation: Blood: Testosterone level, Prolactin level, Leutenizing hormone level, test to know sensation in penis, Nocturnal penile tumescence test (NPT) (Normally a healthy person has 5-6 erections during sleep, specially during Rapid Eye Movement period), Duplex ultrasound, Cavernosography
and Magnetic resonance angiography.
Urethrography and cavernosography
imaging in a small series of penile fractures: A comparison with surgical findings.
Dynamic infusion cavernosometry, cavernosography
, arteriography, and neurophysiologic testing are available.
Specialised tests for assessing aetiology include nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity, dynamic duplex ultrasound, dynamic infusion cavernosometry, cavernosography
internal pudendal arteriography and biothesimetry.
Penile ultrasonography, cavernosography
and magnetic resonance imaging can help in the diagnosis of PF (2).
(1) The other diagnostic methods, which are more invasive than NPT test, are color Doppler sonography, dynamic cavernosometry, and cavernosography
. (2) Such invasive methods are unnecessary for differentiating psychogenic and organic etiology.
In all ED patients, we advise vasoactive drugs injection in corpus spongiosum in office, before color Doppler sonography of penis as well as cavernosography
and cavernosometry, also Rigiscan as needed.
In animal models, direct intracavernosal injection of recombinant VEGF protein or adenoviral VEGF that contains plasmids has shown dramatic results based on cavernosography
is considered an easy technique and is used to define the location and extent of corporal rupture.