formations start with expression of integral membrane proteins caveolin-1 or caveolin -2 in ER followed by their oligomerization (7-14 molecules of caveolin) and COPII-dependent transportation to the Golgi.
Through cholesterol depletion, statins cause caveolae
collapse in adipocytes inducing proteasomal degradation of cavin2 and redistribution of cavin-1 to the cytosol .
Cav-1 protein is a component of caveolae
invaginated microdomains of the plasma membrane that is present in most mammalian cells .
In addition, a report has demonstrated a vesicular structure due to the retraction of plasma membrane in cells, and this nest vesicle is also named as Caveolae
. CAV is the marker protein of Caveolae
Other authors reported that extracellular [alpha]-synuclein uptake by microglial cells is mediated by the GM1 ganglioside as well as by hitherto-unknown protein receptors in clathrin-, caveolae
, and dynamin-independent, but lipid raft-dependent processes .
The pores on tumor vasculature include caveolae
, vesiculo-vacuolar organelles, and fenestrations that are on the order of 10-20 nm along with larger but sporadic interendothelial cell gaps, which are significantly larger than 200nm in diameter [16-20].
Toborek, "Lipid rafts and functional caveolae
regulate HIV-induced amyloid beta accumulation in brain endothelial cells," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.
Lutz, "Angiotensin II-induces activation of RhoA via an AT(1)R-, G(q/11)- and p63RhoGEF-dependent pathway in caveolae
of neonatal cardiac fibroblasts," Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology, vol.
Internalization via caveolae
is not a constitutive process but only occurs upon cell stimulation.
(21.) Song JH, Kim M, Park SW, Chen SW, Pitson SM, Lee HT Isoflurane via TGF-betal release increases caveolae
formation and organizes sphingosine kinase signaling in renal proximal tubules.
Caveolin-1 is an iconic structural molecule of Caveolae
. Because of its pivotal role in the process of cell proliferation, apoptosis and other related signaling pathways of human tumors, caveolin-1 has been extensively studied.