After years of use, Kaplan and Norton began recommending that the components of the scorecard be linked together into a causal
Ruben discusses the neglected question of the causal
role of con-reasons (reasons against action) on CTA, and Mele argues that CTA has decided advantages over non-causal
accounts of reasons explanation.
Barnett 2007), in recent years some authors have argued that ozone or other pollutants may be on the causal
pathway between temperature and mortality, and have questioned the appropriateness of controlling for it as a confounder on this basis (Goldberg et al.
If we have a causal
story of why things are happening, we are better prepared to expect what is to come.
configurations and correlations have to be complemented by theoretically deduced arguments on how and why a causal
factor should have a specific effect - or they have to be complemented by causal
- process tracing in order to reveal empirically the specific links and connections which lead from cause to effect.
Yes, of course, all representation, even causal
explanation, is re-presentation.
Pearl directs the Cognitive Systems Laboratory at UCLA and conducts research in artificial intelligence, causal
inference, and philosophy of science.
The considerations above raise an interesting question, namely, what would be the case if BB and IbC were tested in a neutral situation in which none of them is promoted over the other by suggesting either a predictive or a diagnostic causal
interpretation of the learning task?
ii) d is a sufficient causal
condition for e iff it is a law of nature that d is followed by e.
In this paper, we examine the basic principles of empirical scientific investigation that have been adopted to establish causal
relationships and apply these principles to evaluate the evidence underlying the link between cigarette advertising and youth smoking initiation.
Any mishap where fatigue is a causal
factor is preventable-fatigue is a Blue Threat.
He sought for study a dramatic action that, while unchanging in itself, could be shown to have undergone markedly varied causal
explanations over time.