Several taxa outside Titanosauriformes can present a slight anterior displacement on the neural arch on middle caudal vertebrae
(Osborn and Mook, 1921; Janensch, 1929; McIntosh et al., 1996a, 1996b) different from the marked anterior displacement present in the basal eusauropod Cetiosaurus (Upchurch and Martin, 2003) and in titanosauriforms (e.g., Gomani, 2005; Rose, 2007; Gonzalez Riga, 2009; D'Emic, 2013; Mannion et al., 2013) or Galveosaurus (Barco, 2009).
Total vertebrae 59-78, precaudal vertebrae 33-49, caudal vertebrae
Furthermore, Delapparentia turolensis can be distinguished from other basal iguanodonts because it possesses the following unique combination of characters: the lateral surface of the preacetabular process twists around its long axis towards its anterior end so that it comes to face almost dorsally; the rim of the sacrodorsal rib facet is visible, in lateral view, in the preacetabular notch; in profile, the dorsal edge of the ilium is practically straight between the anterior end of the preacetabular process and the part dorsal to the ischial peduncle; the anterior caudal vertebrae
have dorsoventrally expanded (i.e.
The Gobiosoma group is united based on: (1) fusion of hypurals 1-2 with 3-4 and the terminal vertebral element; (2) dorsal pterygiophore pattern of 3(221110); (3) vertebral counts of 11 precaudal and 16-17 caudal vertebrae
; (4) one epural; and (5) two anal pterygiophores anterior to the first haemal arch.
steinitzi 1 3 2 20 17 3 * One specimen with 24 caudal vertebrae
During embryonic development, proximal caudal vertebrae
become surrounded by the ilia and incorporated into the synsacrum.
Vertebral transition a modified Type A, with the tenth abdominal and first caudal vertebrae
(only) with a small basal haemal canal, the main haemal arch of the first caudal vertebra expanded, that of the second about half the size of the first, remaining caudal haemal arches normal; swimbladder terminates at the haemal canal of second caudal vertebra.
: These structures are extremely close to the consensus shape because of their large number within the sample size, just a bit more flattened and anteroposteriorly elongated.
Dorsal zygapophyses prominent on anterior vertebrae, ventral zygapophyses present on posterior precaudal and caudal vertebrae
A small (48-56), robust species of Opistognathus with the following combination of features: Upper jaw sexually dimorphic, maxilla of males longer and with two dark stripes on inner lining; dorsal-fin soft rays, 16 or 17, anal-fin spines III; oblique scale rows in longitudinal series 81-94; gill rakers on lower limb of first arch 22-25; five wide dusky bars overlain with diffuse spotting on body, a faint non-ocellated oval blotch in spinous dorsal between spines 4 and 7; anterior nostril with an unbranched club-shaped cirrus; buccal pigmentation; a large orbit (2.8-3.1 in HL), head short (length 2.8-3.0 in SL), and long upper jaw length (males 1.3-1.4, female 1.7 in HL); caudal vertebrae
The tail skeleton, although not often complete, is always composed of a relatively large number of caudal vertebrae
[ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 3A-B, 6 OMITTED].
The stegosaurian remains consist of dorsal vertebrae and ribs, sparse fragments of caudal vertebrae
, and a partial femur of a small-sized individual.