vertebra

(redirected from caudal vertebra)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

vertebra

 [ver´tĕ-brah] (L.)
any of the separate segments comprising the spine (vertebral column). The vertebrae support the body and provide the protective bony corridor (the spinal or vertebral canal) through which the spinal cord passes. The 33 bones that make up the spine differ considerably in size and structure according to location. There are seven cervical (neck) vertebrae, 12 thoracic (high back), five lumbar (low back), five sacral (near the base of the spine), and four coccygeal (at the base). The five sacral vertebrae are fused to form the sacrum, and the four coccygeal vertebrae are fused to form the coccyx.



The weight-bearing portion of a typical vertebra is the vertebral body, the most forward portion. This is a cylindrical structure that is separated from the vertebral bodies above and below by disks of cartilage and fibrous tissue. These intervertebral disks act as cushions to absorb the mechanical shock of walking, running, and other activity. Sometimes rupture or herniation of a disk may occur (see herniated disk).

A semicircular arch of bone (the vertebral arch) protrudes from the back of each vertebral body, surrounding the spinal cord. Directly in its midline a bony projection, the spinous process, grows backward from the arch. The spinous process can be felt on the back as a hard knob. Three pairs of outgrowths project from the arch. One of these protrudes horizontally on each side and in the thorax connects with the ribs. The remaining two form joints with the vertebrae above and below. The joints permit the spine to bend flexibly. The vertebrae are held firmly in place by a series of strong ligaments.
Structure of vertebrae.
cervical vertebrae the upper seven vertebrae, constituting the skeleton of the neck.
coccygeal vertebrae the lowest segments of the vertebral column, comprising three to five rudimentary vertebrae that form the coccyx.
cranial vertebra the segments of the skull and facial bones, regarded by some as modified vertebrae.
vertebra denta´ta the second cervical vertebra, or axis.
dorsal vertebrae thoracic vertebrae.
false vertebrae those vertebrae that normally fuse with adjoining segments: the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae.
lumbar vertebrae the five vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum.
vertebra mag´na the sacrum.
odontoid vertebra the second cervical vertebra, or axis.
vertebra pla´na a condition of spondylitis in which the body of the vertebra is reduced to a sclerotic disk.
sacral vertebrae the vertebrae just below the lumbar vertebrae, usually five in number and fused to form the sacrum.
thoracic vertebrae the twelve vertebrae between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, giving attachment to the ribs and forming part of the posterior wall of the thorax.
true vertebrae those segments of the vertebral column that normally remain unfused throughout life: the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

ver·te·bra

, gen. and pl.

ver·te·brae

(ver'tĕ-bră, -brē), [TA] Avoid the mispronunciation verte'bra.
One of the segments of the vertebral column; in humans, there are usually 33 vertebrae: seven cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral (fused into one bone, the sacrum), and four coccygeal (fused into one bone, the coccyx).
[L. joint, fr. verto, to turn]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

vertebra

(vûr′tə-brə)
n. pl. verte·brae (-brā′, -brē′) or verte·bras
Any of the bones or cartilaginous segments forming the spinal column.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

ver·te·bra

(vĕr'tĕ-bră) [TA]
One of the segments of the spinal column; in human beings there are usually 33 vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (fused into one bone, the sacrum), and 4 coccygeal (fused into one bone, the coccyx).
[L. joint, fr. verto, to turn]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

vertebra

One of the 24 bones of the VERTEBRAL COLUMN.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

vertebra

(pl. vertebrae) one of the bony segments of the VERTEBRAL COLUMN.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Vertebra

The bones that make up the back bone (spine).
Mentioned in: Disk Removal
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

ver·te·bra

(vĕr'tĕ-bră) [TA] Avoid the mispronunciation verte'bra.
One of the segments of vertebral column; in humans, there are usually 33 vertebrae.
[L. joint, fr. verto, to turn]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
This middle caudal vertebra only bears a slight anterior displacement of the neural arch more pronounced than in MG 4811 or MG 8805.
Similar ridges are also observed in a posterior caudal vertebra referred to Europasaurus (DFMMh/FV 995, pers.
Description: MG 8800 is a partial middle caudal vertebra lacking its neural arch (Fig.
The centrum of the middle caudal vertebra (from CdG) is almost subcircular in anterior/posterior view, and in some cases, the dorsoventral width could be higher than the transverse width (e.g., CdG or CdH).
(2013) considered it to be a procoelous caudal vertebra. Nevertheless, this specimen is herein interpreted as a partial dorsal vertebra.
Lapparent and Zbyszewski (1957) referred the presence of one caudal vertebra broken into two pieces that probably are MG 4819 and MG 4821.
The presence of pneumatic fossae in the lateral face of middle caudal vertebra are only recorded in the Morrison and Tendaguru diplodocines (Osborn, 1899; McIntosh, 2005; Lucas et al., 2006; Remes, 2006) and in some cases they are perforated by pneumatic foramina as occur in Diplodocus (e.g., Osborn, 1899).
Description: A middle caudal vertebra lacking the neural arch (Fig.
Three fragments (MG 25254.2-4) are associated and were found in a locality between Foz Velha da Maceira and Cambelas (Torres Vedras), one middle/posterior caudal vertebra (MG 25254.2) and three indeterminate fragments.
An isolated middle caudal vertebra (MG 8802), found in the collections with unknown locality, is related to an indeterminate sauropod.
3.- (next page) Sauropod caudal vertebra of the Museu Geologico.