LL-37 is based on a human antimicrobial peptide, structurally derived from the C-terminal part of human cathelicidin
antimicrobial protein 18 (hCAP18), and stimulates the function of several cell types involved in wound healing, including skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts.
LL-37, the only human member of the cathelicidin
family of antimicrobial peptides.
Formation of 1,25(OH)2D within macrophages promotes the translation of a bactericidal agent, cathelicidin
, the only known human protein having bactericidal properties.6 Low serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D observed in the present study maybe due to decreased conversion from its less active form or increased degradation.
Lack of cathelicidin
processing in Papillon-Lefevre syndrome patients reveals essential role of LL-37 in periodontal homeostasis.
anti-microbial peptide LL-37 is involved in re-epithelialization of human skin wounds and is lacking in chronic ulcer epithelium.
(3,4) In Leprosy, vitamin D, through its interaction with VDR, were thought to act as immunomodulator that influences macrophage in killing the pathogen by increasing the expression of antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin
. (1,5) For the immunological activity of vitamin D to happen, it needs to interact with its receptor, the VDR.
LL-37 induces angiogenesis via PGE2-EP3 signaling in endothelial cells, in vivo inhibition by aspirin.
Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs; cathelicidin
LL37, human neutrophil peptide-1 and human beta defensins) are a key component of innate immunity against pathogens and play a role in the destruction of pathogens engulfed by phagocytic cells.40 AMPs are activated by Mtb infection.41 Studies have revealed reduced expression of AMPs in DM patients with latent and active TB when compared with non-DM patients.42 These indicate an association between down-regulation of AMPs and their impact on DM and TB susceptibility.
It is not simply a vitamin, but is a neuroregulatory steroidal hormone regulating the ability of the body to fight infection and producing 200 antimicrobial peptides, including cathelicidin
, a natural broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Candidacidal activity of selected ceragenins and human cathelicidin
LL-37 in experimental settings mimicking infection sites.
In fact, studies have shown that vitamin D increases the production of a protein called cathelicidin
, which protects the healthy skin from infections and bacteria.
The first is cathelicidin
(LL37), derived from keratinocyte and may be considered as an autoantigen since it is an antimicrobial peptide.