(88) This practice, and its differentiation between honestos and utilitos widely regarded as classic reason of state, is, in fact, essentially casuist
in that the recourse to distrust and dissimulation 'departs from virtue or the laws in the interest of the King and Kingdom'.
Although further historical studies are required to document the various strands of tradition, the loss of the proximate end and the perspective of the acting person in much of the post-Tridentine speculative and casuist
tradition seems to have contributed greatly to its mid-twentieth-century collapse under charges of "physicalism" and "biologism," and to the development of alternative revisionist moral theories after the Second Vatican Council.
After a century of successfully resolving cases, however, casuists
articulated new material principles.
The idea here is that our notions of right or wrong grow out of actual experiences of exemplary conduct, and thus are not the result of theoretical speculations about the nature of "the good" and "the right." While the paradigm case serves, then, as the objective source of our substantive notions of right or wrong, the judgment that the case elicits represents the moral sensibility that guides the profesional casuist
Eventually the casuist
, by entertaining a variety of circumstances, exposes the morally defining ones that make a new case morally different from the original one.
invoke the traditional list of circumstances (who, what, when, where, why, how, and by what means) to bring the relevant facts to the surface.
Since we live in a pluralistic and fractured society, we should expect that our casuists
will be guided by many conflicting theoretical persuasions and notions of the good.
Let one imagine to himself this general emulation between confessors, directors, and consulting casuists
, to justify every body, and to find continually some adroit means to go farther in indulgence, and to make some new case innocent which had before been deemed culpable.
The comment that is difficult to be "Guiltless" when "Love and Honour fight within" is followed in the next stanza by another reference to the struggle between the two values: "When you great Pair shall disagree / What casuist
can the Umpire be" (57-58).
He is not much critical of the casuist
analysis that distinguishes between killing by soldiers and kilting by civilians.
Bulstrode, the antinomian so self-satisfied he can shrug off Providence, figuring "it is only what we are vividly conscious of that we can vividly imagine to be seen by Omniscience," is more casuist
than ethicist, and Rosamond's better liking of the off-pitch stranger hardly counts as an attempt at harmonizing with somebody else's equivalent self (646).
He reads dueling codes and anti-dueling tracts with the eye of an ethical casuist
, that is, in the same way as the men who consulted them as guides to action.