It involves the activation of caspase-9 which then triggers a cascade of events involving caspase-3 and caspase-7
XIAP, a member of IAP family with baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domain, has been shown to bind to and inhibit caspase-3 and caspase-7
via the BIR2 linker region, leading to alternation of cellular localization and blockage of the caspases docking to their substrates .
Secondly, maybe the executioner caspase-7
was activated in these concentrations.
Bressenot, A., et al., Assessment of apoptosis by immunohistochemistry to active caspase-3, active caspase-7
, or cleaved PARP in monolayer cells and spheroid and subcutaneous xenografts of human carcinoma.
Different sub-cellular distribution of Caspase-3 and Caspase-7
following Fas-induced apoptosis in mouse liver.
To rule out the possibility that caspase-7
, which shares similar substrate specificity with caspase-3, is compensatory activated in [Casp3.sup.-/-][ApoE.sup.-/-] BMDM and [Casp3.sup.-/-][ApoE.sup.-/-] VSMCs, a fluorometric DEVD substrate-based caspase activity assay was performed.
Executioner caspase-3 and caspase-7
are functionally distinct proteases.
The protective effects shown by caspase inhibitors are further supported by experiments using selective caspase-7
deficient mice that were found to be resistant to lipopolysaccharide-induced lymphocyte apoptosis as well as lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality, independent of the excessive production of serum cytokines (44).
As a consequence, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-7
levels were significantly downregulated, indicating negative regulation of apoptosis by COC extract.
They observed no significant differences in the activation of downstream executioner caspase-3 and caspase-7
in HeLa cells infected with wild-type EPEC or a [DELTA]nleF EPEC derivative .
Executioner caspases (caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-7
) and upstream effector caspases (caspase-2, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-10) are well known as mediators in AD brains .
This leads to the activation of caspase-9, which then triggers a cascade of caspases activation (caspase-3 and caspase-7
) resulting in the morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis.