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cascade

 [kas-kād´]
a series of steps or stages (as of a physiological process) that, once initiated, continues to the final step because each step is triggered by the preceding one, resulting in amplification of the signal, information, or effect at each stage. In electronics, the term is applied to multiple amplifiers. Examples in biochemistry include blood coagulation and the complement system.
coagulation cascade the series of steps beginning with activation of the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways of coagulation, or of one of the related alternative pathways, and proceeding through the common pathway of coagulation to the formation of the fibrin clot.
The coagulation cascade. This scheme emphasizes the understanding of 1, the importance of the tissue factor pathway in initiating clotting in vivo; 2, the interactions between pathways; and 3, the pivotal role of thrombin in sustaining the cascade by feedback activation of coagulation factors. HMWK = high-molecular-weight kininogen; PK = prekallikrein; PL = phospholipid; PT = prothrombin; TF = tissue factor; Th = thrombin. From Schafer, 1994.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cas·cade

(kas-kād'),
1. A series of sequential interactions, as of a physiologic process, which after being initiated continues to the final one; each interaction is activated by the preceding one, sometimes with cumulative effect.
2. To spill over, especially rapidly.
[Fr., fr. It. cascare, to fall]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

cascade

(kăs-kād′)
n.
a. A succession of stages, processes, operations, or units.
b. Electronics A series of components or networks, the output of each of which serves as the input for the next.
c. A chemical or physiological process that occurs in successive stages, each of which is dependent on the preceding one, and often producing a cumulative effect: an enzymatic cascade.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Cardiac Arrest in Seattle: Conventional vs. Amiodarone Drug Evaluation. A trial comparing conventional therapy vs. amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic on M&M in survivors of refractory out-of-hospital ventricular arrhythmias
Conclusion Slight increase in survival free of cardiac death; resuscitated ventricular fibrillation or defibrillator shock was better with amiodarone at 2, 4, and 6 years of followup; overall mortality is high, side effects are common
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

cascade

Physiology A molecular system capable of self-propagation or amplification, especially of a weak signal; once a cascade is initiated, it may continue to be amplified through positive feedback loops and pathways, until down-regulated by local mechanisms–eg, by proteolytic enzymes. See Complement cascade, Ischemic cascade, Metastatic cascade.

CASCADE

Cardiology A clinical trial–Cardiac Arrest in Seattle: Conventional vs Amiodarone Drug Evaluation–that compared conventional therapy vs amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic on M&M in survivors of refractory out-of-hospital ventricular arrhythmias. See Amiodarone, Ventricular arrhythmia. Cf BASIS.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cas·cade

(kas-kād')
1. A series of sequential interactions, as of a physiologic process, which after being initiated continues to the final one; each interaction is activated by the preceding one, sometimes with cumulative effect.
2. To spill over, especially rapidly.
[Fr., fr. It. cascare, to fall]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

cascade

A physiological system in which the completion of one event has an outcome that initiates the next successive event. Blood coagulation, for instance, is a cascade involving more than a dozen successive events. In genetics a cascade system controls the order in which genes are expressed.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

cascade

sequential ENZYME reactions in which one activated enzyme activates the next in the sequence, which in turn amplifies the initial response, as in the COMPLEMENT system and BLOOD CLOTTING.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(2) Compared with the load quantization method based on the degree, the hierarchy-degree method proposed in this paper can make the network better against cascading failure, while the initial load definition based on the level can make the C2 networks have the best ability to resist cascade failure.
In order to verify the effectiveness and superiority of NALR strategy, which is compared with the conventional load redistribution strategy based on the spare capacity of neighboring nodes, G and CF are still employed to measure cascading invulnerability of C2 networks.
Furthermore, five kinds of cascading failure models in other literature sources, which adopted conventional load redistribution strategy, are compared with the cascading failure model proposed in this paper.
(i) The cascading failure model is proposed in this paper; more details are available in Section 2.
Figure 11 shows the relationship between the network invulnerability and attacking ratio p in different cascading failure models, where many rounds of simulations and average calculations are carried out.
According to the comparison and analysis of Figure 11, the main conclusions are as follows: (1) No matter what kind of cascading failure model, the invulnerability of C2 networks decreases as the attacking ratio p increases.
In the research of invulnerability for cascading failures in C2 networks, it is necessary to define the reasonable initial load of the node and redistribute the load from failure node.
So far, the research in this paper only focuses on node cascading failure, and there is no consideration for edge cascading failure and no consideration for the case that the overload node may return to normal.
Yang, "Analyzing and modeling cascading failures for inter-domain routing system," Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, vol.
Li, "Cascading failure model for weighted networks and invulnerability analyses," Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, vol.
Brazier, "A robustness metric for cascading failures by targeted attacks in power networks," in Proceedings of the 2013 10th IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, ICNSC 2013, pp.
Fulli, "A framework for analyzing cascading failure in large interconnected power systems: A post-contingency evolution simulator," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol.

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