coli strains were grown at 37[degrees]C with aeration at an agitation rate of 180 rpm in LB medium (for overnight growth) or M9 minimal medium (containing 6.4 g/L [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4]*7[H.sub.2]O, 1.5g/L K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 0.25 g/L NaCl, and 0.5 g/L N[H.sub.4]Cl) supplemented with 2 mM MgS[O.sub.4], 0.1 mM Ca[Cl.sub.2], 0.1 mM casamino acids, and 1% glycerol as the sole carbon source (for growth during the analysis).
The strains grown overnight were washed with MgS[O.sub.4] (10 mM) buffer, resuspended in the same buffer, and diluted to a ratio of 1:20 with M9 minimal medium (containing 6.4 g/L [Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4]*7[H.sub.2]O, 1.5 g/L K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 0.25 g/L NaCl, and 0.5 g/L N[H.sub.4]Cl) supplemented with 2 mM MgS[O.sub.4], 0.1 mM Ca[Cl.sub.2], 0.1 mM casamino acids, chloramphenicol (17 [micro]g/mL), and 1% glycerol as the sole carbon source.
Table 2 Component For tubes For 1-liter For 100 mL bottle For 1000 mL Glass-distilled water 30 mL 300 mL Glycylglycine buffer, 1 M, 20 mL 200 mL pH = 8.0 General salt solution 50 mL 500 mL [K.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4], 14 g/L 1.0 mL 10 mL Na acetate x 3[H.sub.2]O, 136 g/L 1.0 mL 10 mL Trace mineral solution  1.0 mL 10 mL Iron stock solution  0.5 mL 5 mL Resazurin, 0.1 g/100 mL 0.1 mL 1 mL Sodium formate (NaCOOH) 2.7 g 27 g Sodium bicarbonate (NaHC[O.sub.3]) 0.5 g 5.0 g Casamino acids
(for complex medium) 0.5 g 5.0 g Alanine (optional, 100 mM) 1.0 mL 10 mL (a) Medium components are based upon Balch and Wolfe , Romesser et al.
[beta]-galactosidase expression experiments were performed in NFDM medium (31) with 20 mM of ammonium chloride (+N) or 0.2% casamino acids (-N), in the absence of [O.sub.2].
[beta]-galactosidase expression experiments were performed in NFDM medium supplemented with 20 mM ammonium chloride (+N) or 0.2% casamino acids (-N) in the presence (+O) or absence (-O) of [O.sub.2].
Solutions of inorganic phosphate ([Na.sub.2]HP[O.sub.4]), casamino acids, amino acids, carbonhydrates, protein supplements (gelatin, albumin, and casein), and salts of divalent metals were sterilized separately and added into the medium before inoculation in indicated concentrations.
One of the ways of biosynthesis of extracellular enzymes is the regulation using the final product, which can be amino acids and casamino acids. In cultivation of microorganisms, casamino acids can serve as an additional source of both carbon and nitrogen.
The composition (g/L) of VMNI medium consists of 0.5 K[H.sub.2]P[O.sub.4], 1.0 N[H.sub.4]Cl, 4.5 NaS[O.sub.4], 0.3 sodium citrate, 0.04 Ca[Cl.sub.2].6[H.sub.2]O, 0.06 MgS[O.sub.4].7[H.sub.2]O, 2.0 casamino acids
, 2.0 tryptone, 6.0 lactate, 0.1 ascorbic acids, 0.1 thioglycollic acids and 0.5 FeS[O.sub.4].7[H.sub.2]O.
Bacterial growth media that are used to produce the vaccine contain casamino acids
, according to Adacel labeling.
(1995), the addition of casamino acids
and inositol is important for the formation of the fruiting body of A.
Lactose, galactose, serine, glutamine, ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, dextrose, aspartic acid, threonine, arginine, asparagine, methionine, leucine, citrate, sucrose, soluble starch, and casamino acids
were used as potential chemoattractants.
Briefly, a single yeast colony (i.e., untransformed EBY100, EBY100/pYD1, EBY100/pYD1-N, and EBY100/pYD1 containing various N protein fragments) was inoculated into 8 mL of yeast nitrogen-based casamino acid
medium containing 20 g/L glucose and grown overnight at 30[degrees]C with shaking.