2012, 2014a) + secretion of growth factors and molecules from surrounding bone and cartilage + nutrient and oxygen gradients in cartilage tissue - cartilage matrix
degenerates over time - decrease in bone viability - no separation of bone and cartilage media
As shown in Figure 3, the decrease in remaining content of UA and collagen in the explants culture treated with IL-1[beta] indicated the enormous loss of these cartilage matrix
Chondroitin sulfate is a component of normal cartilage matrix
After allogenic MSCs were injected intraarticularly into the rat knee joints, toluidine blue staining in the 4-week group revealed less cartilage degradation, including chondrocyte aggregation on the concave surface of the cartilage, cartilage fissure, and reduced cartilage matrix
staining on the therapy sides of the knee joint in both the immobilized and nonimmobilized subgroups [Figure 4]a1 and [Figure 4]a3 compared with the control sides, which exhibited reduced cartilage thickness and superficial cartilage erosion [Figure 4]a2 and [Figure 4]a4.
This leads to severe cartilage matrix
damage as observed in OA.
The rationale for the study was based on the fact that although statins are increasingly recognized for their broad anti-inflammatory effects, they have also been shown to increase the production of nitric oxide, which could have a deleterious effect on the cartilage matrix
, the investigators said.
Obtaining cultures or performing histochemical staining can help rule out infectious organisms, while clinical tests for cartilage matrix
proteins or antibodies to type II collagen (found uniquely in cartilage) can help define relapsing polychondritis.
By histology, type IA is characterized by inclusion bodies in chondrocytes, and the cartilage matrix
is close to normal; in type IB, the cartilage matrix
is distinctly abnormal, showing rarefaction of the ground substance and a peculiar ringlike pericellular arrangement of collagen fibers.
Statins are increasingly recognized for their broad anti-inflammatory effects, but also have been shown to increase the production of nitric oxide, which could have a deleterious effect on the cartilage matrix
, the investigators said.
The effects of peptides/fragments on cartilage matrix
degradation were measured by quantitation of proteoglycan left in cartilage explants after extended culture.
The supplements in question have been studied only in people with OA, and in those trials, they inhibited the inflammatory process and helped chondrocytes build new cartilage matrix
, the panel said.
Their report also described a mildly lobulated margin with fine, low-signal-intensity septations on the T2-weighted images, suggestive of cartilage matrix