The carpal joint capsule is comprised of a common outer fibrous capsule and three inner synovial pouches, one for each joint.
Radiographic images of the carpal joint. The dorsopalmar and mediolateral radiographic views showed the carpal bones and the articulations of the carpal joint; antebrachiocarpal, mediocarpal and carpometacarpal or the articulations between the carpal bones of each row (Fig.
Computed tomographic scans of the carpal joint. In CT images; the carpal joint was clearly identified (Fig.
Scanning electron microscopy of the carpal joint. The synovial membrane largely covered by densely arranged synovial villi (Fig.
The wall and contents of the carpal canal (deep digital flexor tendon, superficial digital flexor tendon, accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon, flexor retinaculum, palmar carpal ligament), the proximal attachment of the suspensory ligament and the carpal joint ligaments were shown in our results were in a line with that mentioned in horse (Konig et al.).
Through radiography of the carpal joint, the overlaying images confused interpretation and it may be necessary to compare images from several different views to ensure that suspected lesions are not due to overlying images (Butler et al.).
In CT scans of the carpal joint of the donkey the DDFT was appeared hyperdense while the SDFT appeared hypodense (Kaser-Hotz et al., 1994).
Radiography of the carpal joint; (A) Dorsopalmar radiograph, (B and C) mediolateral radiographs.
Contrast radiographic and dissected cast images of the carpal joint: (A) dorsopalmar contrast radiograph.
Transverse CT scans (A, B, C and D) and Sagittal CT scans (E and F) of the carpal joint. A-B.