Traumatic aneurysm and carotid-cavernous fistula
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Management of 100 consecutive direct carotid-cavernous fistulas: results of treatment with detachable balloons.
c and d Left ICA angiography showing the high-grade stenosis (white arrow) and a direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) that drained into contralateral cavernous sinus via the intercavernous sinuses, and posteriorly into the internal jugular veins through the inferior petrosal sinuses.
Intracranial stent placement for the treatment of a carotid-cavernous fistula associated with intracranial angioplasty.
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Management of carotid-cavernous fistulas by surgery combined with interventional radiology.
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Successful transarterial embolization of a barrow type D dural carotid-cavernous fistula with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx).
TCE has replaced surgery in curing carotid-cavernous fistulas
. It is the preferred modality for treating lesions at sites difficult to approach by conventional surgery.