carotid endarterectomy


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Related to carotid endarterectomy: carotid artery, Carotid stenosis

carotid

 [kah-rot´id]
pertaining to the principal artery of the neck (the carotid artery). See anatomic Table of Arteries in the Appendices.
carotid endarterectomy surgical removal of atherosclerotic plaques within an extracranial carotid artery, usually the common carotid, done to prevent stroke in patients with 70 per cent or greater carotid stenosis. Patients who have a stroke in evolution or have recently had a stroke are not good candidates for the procedure. Surgery at this time could cause an infarcted area of the brain to hemorrhage when its blood supply is suddenly increased. In addition, there is a low success rate for those patients who have total occlusion of the internal carotid arteries.
Patient Care. Immediately after surgery special monitoring is necessary to assess the patient's neurologic status, including level of consciousness, orientation, and motor activity, especially on the side opposite the surgery. Because of the location of the surgical incision, an enlarging hematoma can rapidly produce respiratory distress. Aspiration also is possible because a hematoma can obstruct the trachea and damage the laryngeal nerve, preventing closure of the glottis.

Crucial observations include evaluation of neck size, noting the patient's ability to swallow, close observation and measurement of drainage, and measurement of respiratory rate and character. A tracheostomy tray and suction apparatus should be available even after the patient is transferred from the recovery room or intensive care unit. Neurologic assessment is necessary to detect complications associated with postoperative cerebral ischemia and cranial nerve damage. Because ischemia of the myocardium is also a possibility, continuous electrocardiograph monitoring is required. Since blood pressure may be increased by surgery, postoperative hypertension is not uncommon.
 Carotid endarterectomy. Plaques are removed from the artery to improve blood flow. Modified from Black and Matassarin-Jacobs, 2001.
carotid sinus syndrome syncope sometimes associated with convulsive seizures due to overactivity of the carotid sinus reflex. In certain susceptible persons the carotid sinus is too easily stimulated and symptoms are produced by sudden turning of the head or the wearing of a tight collar. Transient attacks of numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, headache, and in some cases aphasia may also occur. The condition most commonly affects older males and may be a cause of unexplained falls. Diagnosis can be confirmed by a gentle massage of the carotid sinus area of a patient under monitoring. asystole for longer than 3 seconds or a reduction in systolic blood pressure of more than 500 mm Hg are considered positive indications. The syndrome can be subdivided into cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed types. Dual chamber cardiac pacing is indicated in the cardioinhibitory and mixed types. Patients who have this condition should be educated to avoid triggering events.

endarterectomy

 [en″dahr-ter-ek´to-me]
excision of thickened atheromatous areas of the innermost coat of an artery; see also atherectomy.
carotid endarterectomy see carotid endarterectomy.

ca·rot·id end·ar·ter·ec·to·my (CEA),

excision of occluding material, including intima and most of the media, from the carotid a.

carotid endarterectomy

Neurology Removal of atherosclerotic plaque by “scraping” the vascular intima of the carotid arteries to ↓ risk of CVAs and TIAs. See Stroke, Transient ischemic attack.

carotid endarterectomy

A surgical procedure to widen the lumen of a carotid artery narrowed by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Preoperative assessment is by duplex ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and CT angiography. The vessel is clamped and opened with a longitudinal incision and the atherosclerotic plages removed. The effectiveness of the procedure depends largely on how extensively the state of branches of the carotids higher up towards the brain are affected. Carotid stenosis may be caused by a wafer-thin fibrous diaphragm. Trials suggest that this procedure is at least as effective as carotid angioplasty and stenting.
References in periodicals archive ?
The patients' perspective of carotid endarterectomy. Vasc Endovascular Surg 2010 Oct;44(7):529-534.
* Carotid endarterectomy remains the gold standard for treatment.
Contraindications for a carotid endarterectomy include a severe neurologic deficit following a cerebral infarction, an occluded carotid artery or a concurrent illness that significantly limits the patient's life expectancy.
In summary, patients with carotid stenosis may or may not benefit from a carotid endarterectomy. Nurses play a key role in patient selection for CEA.
A number of studies have shown that rates of carotid endarterectomy are significantly lower among African Americans (Elixhauser, Harris, and Coffey 1994; Escarce et al.
Robison et al., "Combined carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting versus coronary artery bypass grafting alone: A retrospective review of outcomes at our institution," Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol.
Subsequently, the patient underwent a left carotid endarterectomy with bovine patch angioplasty one week after admission with no complications.
Cerebral and hemodynamic effects of lidocaine accidentally injected into the carotid arteries of patients having carotid endarterectomy. Anesthesiology 1988;69:787-90.
Vascular Patches Market Research Report by Material (Biologic Vascular Patches, Synthetic Vascular Patches), Application (Carotid Endarterectomy, Open Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Vascular Bypass Surgery, and Others), End-user (Hospitals and Clinics, Ambulatory Surgical Centers, and Others), and Region-Global Forecast till 2023
Based on Treatment, the global Carotid Stenosis market is segmented as Diagnosis Doppler Ultrasound CT Angiogram (CTA) Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Cerebral Angiogram Surgery Carotid Endarterectomy Carotid Artery Angioplasty Carotid Artery Bypass Based on Drug Class, the global Carotid Stenosis market is segmented as: Antiplatelet Cholesterol-Lowering Statins Antihypertensive Other Based on End user, the global Carotid Stenosis market is segmented as: Hospital Ambulatory Surgical Centers Clinic Homecare Setting Heart care center Carotid Stenosis Market: Overview The global market for Carotid Stenosis is growing with increase in awareness and manufacturer level differences.
In addition, ROADSTER-2 showed lower rates of acute and permanent cranial nerve injury than is typically observed for patients receiving carotid endarterectomy, the current standard of care.