Although astaxanthin can be freely deposited, esterified and integrated into protein complexes (carotenoprotein
) (Matsuno, 2001), the assimilation of this pigment may also have a limit, and when an excess exists it can be discarded along with feces without being metabolized.
Astaxanthin was known exist in three forms: sterified, free molecule or forming chemicalcomplex molecule with protein, the carotenoprotein
. Thisprotein usually exists in crustaceans (Higuera-Ciapara et al.,2006) and is widely used in aquaculture feeds (to provide coloration), cosmetics, medical and as supplement for general health being.In crustacean shells, the protein layer interlays with the chitin layer where they sometimes coexist (Wang et al.,2007).
Astaxanthin extraction from shrimp waste by lactic fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis of the carotenoprotein
Studies on a blue carotenoprotein
, linckiacyanin, isolated from the starfish Linckia laevigata (Echinodermata: Asteroidea).
Its visible region absorbance profile mainly corresponds to PcOvo carotenoprotein
, which has a series of associated chromogens (Dreon et al., 2004).
A study of the lipids and carotenoprotein
in the prawn Penaeus japonicus.
Blue crustacyanin ([beta]-form) is an oligomeric carotenoprotein
that colors the carapace of decapods (Zagalsky et al., 1970; Vranckx and Durliat, 1986).
Pigments associated with some hydrocoral and scleractinian coral skeletons have been identified as carotenoprotein
complexes (Fox and Wilkie, 1970; Fox, 1972; Ronneberg et al., 1979).
oerstedii is likely based on carotenoproteins
(Newbigin, 1897; Zagalsky et al., 1970; Bandaranayake, 2006), which are carotenoids that have formed chemical complexes with proteins.
Coloration in sea anemones is due mainly to the presence of various types of carotenoids and/or carotenoproteins
(LeBoeuf, McCommas, Howe, & Tauber, 1981a; LeBoeuf, McCommas, & Howe, 1981b), which are basically obtained by prey consumption (Fox, 1979).
Balti et al., "Biochemical and antioxidant properties of peptidic fraction of carotenoproteins
generated from shrimp by-products by enzymatic hydrolysis," Food Chemistry, vol.