carnitine


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carnitine

 [kahr´nĭ-tēn]
a derivative of betaine found in skeletal muscle and liver; it is necessary for the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids.

car·ni·tine

(kar'ni-tēn),
A trimethylammonium (betaine) derivative of γ-amino-β-hydroxybutyrate, formed from Nε,Nε,Nε-trimethyllysine and from γ-butyrobetaine; the l-isomer is a thyroid inhibitor found in muscle, liver, and meat extract; l-carnitine is an acyl carrier with respect to the mitochondrial membrane and thus stimulates fatty acid oxidation.
Synonym(s): BT factor, vitamin BT
[L. caro carn-, flesh + ine]

carnitine

/car·ni·tine/ (kahr´nĭ-tēn) a betaine derivative involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria, where they are metabolized.

carnitine

(kär′nĭ-tēn′)
n.
A compound that functions in fatty acid metabolism by transporting fatty acids into mitochondria for energy production. It is naturally produced in the body and is present in many animal products, especially red meat. It is also sold as a dietary supplement for its purported health benefits.

carnitine

[kär′nitin]
a substance found in skeletal and cardiac muscle and certain other tissues that functions as a carrier of fatty acids across the membranes of the mitochondria. It is used therapeutically in treating angina and certain deficiency diseases, particularly endocardial fibroelastosis, and as an antithyroid agent. It has actions that closely resemble those of amino acids and B vitamins.

carnitine

Chemistry
An essential amino acid that transports long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for breakdown to CO2 or ketone bodies; it acts as an acyl (fatty acid carrier). Carnitine is endogenous (synthesised in the liver and kidneys from lysine and methionine) or exogenous (from red meat and dairy products).

Fringe nutrition
Carnitine allegedly enhances athletic performance, prevents heart disease, controls weight and has anti-ageing properties; current data does not support these assertions.

car·ni·tine

(kahr'ni-tēn)
A trimethylammonium (betaine) derivative of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid, formed from NE,NE,NE -trimethyllsine and from gamma-butyrobetaine; the l-isomer is a thyroid inhibitor found in muscle, liver, and meat extracts; l-carnitine is an acyl carrier with respect to the mitochondrial membrane; it thus stimulates fatty acid oxidation.
[G. karnin, an alkali derived from meat]

carnitine (kärˑ·n·tēn),

n an amino acid found in meat, dairy sources, avocados, tempeh, and wheat. Claimed to be helpful in endurance and congestive heart failure. Often used by body builders.

car·ni·tine

(kahr'ni-tēn)
Compound found in dairy and meat that stimulates fatty acid oxidation.
[G. karnin, an alkali derived from meat]

carnitine (kar´nətēn´),

n a compound found naturally in red meat and dairy, as well as in legumes and nuts, this quaternary ammonium compound assists in the movement of fatty acids through the membrane of the mitochondria.

carnitine

coenzyme of fatty acid oxidation and acetyl transfer; often designated vitamin BT, due to its vitamin role in Tenebrio sp. Present in high concentrations (5% dry weight) in meat extracts.

carnitine acetyltransferase
enzyme associated with buffering of acetyl groups from acetyl CoA.
carnitine deficiency
associated with myocardial disease in dogs, particularly Boxers.
References in periodicals archive ?
The concentration of free and total carnitine was assessed in two groups of children: control group consisted of serum samples collected from 32 children aged 2-4 years and in urine samples collected from 62 children aged 2-14 years-chronic diseases of liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal conditions (GERD, malabsorption syndromes, acute and chronic diarrheas) were exclusion criteria in this group.
Carnitine is an ammonium compound formed (biosynthesized) from the amino acids lysine and methionine.
The researchers found that increased carnitine levels in patients predicted increased risks for cardiovascular disease and major cardiac events like heart attack, stroke and death, but only in subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels.
The distribution of carnitine and acetylcarnitine in the rabbit epididymis and the carnitine content of rabbit spermatozoa during maturation.
Carnitine and acylcarnitines contain a quaternary ammonium functional group, making them preformed positive ions (cations) that are polar and non-volatile (3).
1), found that carnitine was essential for the growth of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, and it was also discovered that carnitine was present in a wide range of biological materials and that carnitine could be reversibly acetylated with acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA).
Carnitine is derived from an amino acid and found in nearly all cells of the body.
During exercise, carnitine provides economical expenditure of carbohydrate by increasing the use of free fatty acids (F.
Carnitine is made in the liver and recycled by the kidney, but in some cases when this is insufficient, dietary carnitine from red meat and other animal foods can compensate for the shortfall.
After the period of acclimation, they were ovariectomized and randomly assigned to (1) a control (-CN) group fed the AIN-93M and (2) a L-carnitine (+CN) group fed the same diet with supplemental carnitine at 150mg/kg diet.
Carnitine also removes the toxic byproducts of fatty acid metabolism.