schneideri is a rich source of cardiotonic
steroids known as bufadienolides, including "marinobufagin, bufalin, telocinobufagin, hellebrigenin, and the atypical 20S, 21R-epoxymarinobufagin", and a great number of studies on the biological activities of skin secretions of R.
crassifolia indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (+++), tannins (+++), flavonoids (+++), anthraquinones (++), triterpenes (+++), cardiotonic
glycosides (+++) and reducing sugars (++) (Figure 1).
operculatus such as anticancer, antihyperglycemic hypolipidemic, and cardiotonic
effects are well documented [16, 17].
Additionally, carotenoids and cardiotonic
compounds were determined from total extracts obtained from both plants.
Oleandrine (oleandroside) is a cardiotonic
glycoside derived from an aglycone, oleandrigenin (16-acetylgitoxigenin), and a sugar oleandrose (2-deoxy-3-Omethylrhamnose), of the empirical formula [C.sub.32][H.sub.48][O.sub.9].
As shown in Figure 1 and Table 1, with the help of LC-MS and reference substances, telocinobufagin, bufotaline, cinobufotalin, bufalin, cinobufagin, and resibufogenin had been identified as main components of LSW-ET, most of which have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and cardiotonic
These phytochemicals elicit protective effects on atherosclerosis and display antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well express cardiotonic
, antidiabetic, and antiobesity activities [16, 17].
It also showed antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fertility, hypotensive, diuretic and cardiotonic
Plasma and urinary tanshinol from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) can be used as pharmacokinetic markers for cardiotonic
pills, a cardiovascular herbal medicine.
Heterocyclic compounds containing phthalazine moiety have attracted considerable attention in recent years owing to their pharmacological and biological activities  such as anticonvulsant , cardiotonic
 and vasorelaxant activities .
Impaired cardiac contractility and peripheral vascular resistance may necessitate pharmacotherapy with cardiotonic
and vasoactive drugs.