Cardiac chamber: narrow and elongate; numerous fine and short setae filling every wall and base of cardiac floor; cardiopyloric vestigial and unarmed.
Cardiac chamber: narrow and elongate with micro setae filling the anterior portion of the cardiac wall; cardiac floor lacking setae and brush; cardiopyloric valve almost vestigial and unarmed.
Cardiac chamber: Narrow; elongate and bent; short setae filling the cardiac wall anteriorly; cardiac floor bearing a ventral brush; cardiopyloric valve prominent but unnamed.
Cardiac Chamber: with numerous fine setae filling the wall, roof and floor of the cardiac chamber; cardiopyloric valve prominent having hard structures in the inferior portion and armed with numerous fine setae in the posterior and superior portions.
Cardiac chamber: very setose, mainly in the wall and roof of the cardiac chamber; main brush well-developed; cardiopyloric valve prominent with the rigid structures more distinct in the inferior area and, equipped with medium setae in the posterior and superior portions.
Cardiac chamber: distended laterally; main brush of the gastric mill well-developed and apparently calcified having the zygocardiac (bearing the lateral teeth); urocardiac (bearing a strong medial tooth), mesocardiac, pterocardiac, propyloric, exopyloric and pyloric ossicles; other ossicles of lateral support are present such as, prepectinal (bearing the accessory teeth), postpectinal, lateral cardiopyloric valve and other not well-distinguished ossicles; valve cardiopyloric strong and specialized having many specified setae, hook shaped, disposed in the superior portion
Cardiac chamber: with numerous fine setae on cardiac floor; cardiac wall lacking setae; cardiopyloric valve rounded and robust, with strong cylindrical setae in the posterior portion.
Cardiac chamber: cardiac floor with a row of elongate and fine setae; cardiac wall slightly wrinkled with some setae in the anterior portion; cardiopyloric valve rounded, wide and armed with strong cylindrical setae in posterior portion.
Cardiac chamber: chamber enlarged dorsolaterally by the ossicles of the gastric mill; the cardiac floor disposed vertically; cardiopyloric valve specialized and robust.
Cardiac chamber: gastric mill showing a group of well-developed articulated ossicles; cardiopyloric valve specialized bearing some denticles and several setae in the superior portion.
The most common form, organo-axial volvulus, occurs when the stomach turns along the cardiopyloric axis resulting in obstruction of both the cardia and pylorus (Figs 1 and 2).
This imaginary line is at a right angle to the cardiopyloric axis (1,2) (Figs 1 and 3).