cardiopulmonary arrest


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car·di·o·pul·mo·nar·y ar·rest

an arrest resulting in absence of cardiac and pulmonary activity.

arrest

(a-rest') [Fr. arester fr L. arrestare, to stop]
1. The state of being stopped.
2. To bring to a stop.

active phase arrest

Cessation of the progress of labor despite treatment with appropriate doses of oxytocin. It is an indication of the need for cesarean delivery.

bradyasystolic arrest

Cardiac arrest marked by an extremely slow pulse, usually less than 30 beats/min. This can be due to increased vagal stimulation, progressive heart block, hypoxemia, drugs such as beta blockers, or other causes.

cardiac arrest

Sudden cessation of functional circulation. In the U.S., about 1000 people die daily as a result of cardiac arrest. Synonym: cardiopulmonary arrest; sudden cardiac arrest See: arrhythmia; myocardial infarction

Etiology

Coronary artery disease is present in most victims. Cardiac arrest is usually caused by myocardial infarction or ventricular arrhythmias. Contributing causes include cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease, diseases of the electrical conducting system of the heart (such as the long QT syndrome or the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome), myocarditis, chest trauma, severe electrolyte disturbances, and intoxications with drugs of abuse or prescribed agents, e.g., digitalis. Physical exertion or extreme emotional stress sometimes precipitates cardiac arrest.

Symptoms

Abrupt loss of consciousness, followed by death within an hour of onset, is the typical presentation of cardiac arrest.

Treatment

Opening the airway, establishing effective respiration, and restoring circulation (with chest compression and defibrillation) are the keys to treating cardiac arrest. The effectiveness of treatment depends upon the speed with which resuscitation begins and upon the patient's underlying condition. Because most episodes of sudden cardiac arrest are unwitnessed, most patients die without treatment (spontaneous recovery from cardiac arrest in the absence of advanced cardiac life support is very rare). For resuscitated patients, therapies include implantable defibrillators, beta blockers, antiarrhythmic drugs, and, in patients with coronary artery disease, modification of risk factors, i.e., treatment of hypertension, smoking cessation, and lipid-lowering diets and drugs. See: table, advanced cardiac life support

* IO=intraosseous † IV=intravenous cannula ‡ ET=endotracheal
RouteProsCons
Peripheral IVEasiest to insert during chest compressions; least traumatic to the patient.Drugs infused into a peripheral vein take several minutes to reach the heart.
Central IVDrugs and fluids infused into central veins reach the heart in seconds.Insertion may be difficult during chest compressions, intubation, and defibrillation. Arterial injury, pneumothorax, hemothorax, and other complications are common in emergency insertions.
IntraosseousDrugs and fluids infused into marrow reach the central circulation rapidly.Clinical experience with IO* insertion is limited relative to IV† insertion.
EndotrachealMay be used for drug administration when an airway is present, but other forms of access have not been established.Double or triple the IV† dose is needed to achieve similar drug effect. Drugs given ET‡ should be diluted in 5–10 ml of sterile water. Correct placement of the ET tube must be confirmed before use. Unlike the other modes of access, this route cannot be used to infuse high volumes of fluids.

cardiopulmonary arrest

Cardiac arrest.

cleavage arrest

In embryology, an obstruction to or a halt in cell division.

deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

Abbreviation: DHCA
The induction of profoundly low body temperatures, e.g. 20°C (68°F), during surgery to reduce the impact of low organ perfusion and ischemic damage.

epiphyseal arrest

Cessation of the growth of long bones.

pelvic arrest

A condition in which the presenting part of the fetus becomes fixed in the maternal pelvis.

pulseless arrest

An umbrella term for asystole and pulseless electrical activity.

respiratory arrest

Cessation of spontaneous respiration.

sinus arrest

A condition in which the sinus node of the heart does not initiate impulses for heartbeat. If this condition persists, it usually requires implantation of a permanent cardiac pacemaker.
See: artificial cardiac pacemaker

sudden cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest.
References in periodicals archive ?
Studies have shown that the ACLS course offered by the AHA is a viable and effective way to teach students how to manage emergency cardiopulmonary arrests, as evidenced by improved test scores at course end.
And he did not see her before the cardiopulmonary arrest, but arrived after the EMS did.
Although Quinlan's entire body received insufficient oxygen during her cardiopulmonary arrest, Kinney speculates that a swelling in the brain might have completely cut off blood flow to the thalamus and other key regions.
in a coma and with extensive loss of brain tissue that mirrored the injuries of cardiopulmonary arrest. Warmbier was in a state of (http://www.ibtimes.com/otto-warmbiers-coroner-report-contradicts-parents-north-korea-story-2595164) unresponsive wakefulness before he died.
A cardiopulmonary arrest has been stated as the reason for his death.
"This pattern of brain injury is usually seen as result of cardiopulmonary arrest where the blood supply to brain is inadequate for a period of time resulting in the death of brain tissue," he said.
"First to devise clinical guidelines establishing how to best treat cardiopulmonary arrest in dogs and cats, and second to identify important knowledge gaps in veterinary CPR that need to be filled to improve the quality of recommendations and thus the quality of patient care in the future."
He was in cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival, and resuscitation maneuvers were performed.
The patient's blood pressure and respiratory rate were not measured and temporary cardiopulmonary arrest occurred.
While his treatment and follow-ups were ongoing, the patient was brought to the Emergency Department with cardiopulmonary arrest. He was hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome.
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The popularity of this procedure grew and became so strong that today it is seen as "obligatory" to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers on all patients in cardiopulmonary arrest. This is so common that, in the majority of cases, dying in a hospital means undergoing CPR.