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The preliminary steps of CPR, as defined by the American Heart Association, are (1) calling for help; (2) establishing unresponsiveness in the victim by tapping or gently shaking and shouting at him or her; (3) positioning the victim in a supine position on a hard surface; (4) giving two breaths; and (5) checking the pulse. These are begun as quickly as possible; prompt action is essential for successful outcome. At the moment breathing and heart action stop, “clinical death” ensues. Within four to six minutes the cells of the brain, which are the most sensitive to lack of oxygen, begin to deteriorate. If breathing and circulation are not restored within this period of time, irreversible brain damage occurs and “biological death” takes place.
Although CPR is strongly recommended as a life-saving measure, it is not without danger; specific risks include rib fracture, damage to the liver or heart, and puncture of lungs or large blood vessels. All health care providers should receive instruction and practice in CPR under the direction of a qualified instructor. The public in general should also be encouraged to learn CPR for use in emergency situations.
Once it has been established that a person is in need of CPR, the rescuer immediately begins the “ABC's” of CPR: Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. Opening the airway and determining by look, sound, and feel is the first step for determining whether the person will be able to resume unassisted breathing. This is accomplished by lifting the chin up and back and bringing the mandible forward. If there is no evidence of spontaneous breathing, the rescuer corrects obstruction of the airway by a foreign body, when this is indicated. This is done by one or more of the following methods: back blows, manual chest thrusts, and finger sweeps. Once the airway is open, rescue breathing is started by means of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (see artificial respiration).
The third element of CPR is circulation, which begins by establishing the presence or absence of a pulse. If there is no pulse, compression of the chest is begun. This consists of rhythmic applications of pressure on the lower half of the sternum (NOT on the xiphoid process, which may injure the liver). For a normal-sized adult, sufficient force is used to depress the sternum about 4 to 5 cm (1½ to 2 in). This raises intrathoracic pressure and produces the output of blood from the heart. When the pressure is released, blood is allowed to flow into the heart. Compressions should be maintained for one-half second; the same length of time is allowed for the relaxation period.
Chest compression is always accompanied by rescue breathing. The two must be coordinated so that there is regular and uninterrupted circulation of blood and aeration of the lungs.
CPR is a psychomotor skill and all health care providers should keep their certification current in order to be proficient in this procedure in case of emergency. The techniques of CPR provide basic life support (BLS) in all cases of respiratory and cardiac arrest. Standards and guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiac care (ECC), including BCLS and ACLS, have been developed cooperatively by the American Heart Association and the National Academy of Sciences–National Research Council. Reprints of these standards can be obtained from local chapters of the American Heart Association or from the American Heart Association, Distribution Department, 7272 Greenville Ave., Dallas, TX 75231-4596, telephone (800) 553–6321.
cardiopulmonaryPertaining to the heart and the lungs.
Patient discussion about cardiopulmonary
Q. Heart serious, Lungs swollen. My brother Bennet, seventeen, and it is birthday tomorrow. But I guess he already got his seventeenth birthday present: lupus. He is recently diagnosed with lupus, yet some complications are still under-diagnosed. He have always had huge aspirations. Now, as my health deterioates at a weird rate, he can't walk around. His heart is in serious condition, his lungs are swollen, so are his joints. His voice is almost not there and he is, thinking about his eighteenth birthday. His face is swollen, as some gland in his neck has bloated and somehow he don't enjoy what he see in the mirror he says. He is very sensitive to sunlight and so he stay in for all day and when he decide to go out, it is after 8 or 9 p.m. He is despondent, yes. Because he see his dreams shattering, his family life is breaking apart and he feels as if he is getting more useless EVERY single day. How long will he continue? Maybe another thirty years...maybe not another day. Could anyone help him to SURV
With sunlight bothering him, that is called photophobia and is a symptom of certain types of lupus, or can be an effect from a medication he may be taking. The swelling on his neck may be due to hyperthyroidism, asthma, or an allergic reaction perhaps to prednisone, which is given to lupus patients.
You should get your bother to see a doctor soon, if you have not already. You don't want him to stop breathing or anything.