Considering that the total administered magnesium during open heart surgery has been about 50-60mg/kg of magnesium chloride as the crystalloid cardioplegia
. Likewise, mean pump time was not a predictor of hypomagnesaemia (P=0.4).
Moreover, since cardiopulmonary bypass has been known as a protective factor as well as hypothermia and cardioplegia
, maybe achieving more protection is impossible.
Both antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia
was utilised, however, solely retrograde could be an option.
In most cases, it has been attributed to the use of ostial cannulation for antegrade cardioplegia
during surgery, which can cause a mechanical injury to the coronary ostium resulting in hyperplastic reaction and stenosis [5, 7, 8].
Small technical variations, the use of heart-preservation solutions (cardioplegia
), and improvements in the heart-lung machine have optimised this procedure through the decades.
was given and cold saline poured in pericardium.
The suspicion for a PLSVC was communicated to the surgical team given the possible implications for retrograde cardioplegia
They underlined the fact that the immature myocardium is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of developmental differences compared to the adult heart but also because of associated congenital heart diseases that can deplete its antioxidant reserve, thus the importance of preventative strategies such as exogenous antioxidants, use of steroids, cardioplegia
, blood prime strategies, or miniaturisation of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit.
confers sufficient myocardial protection for most patients with preserved ventricular function and leads to a complete postoperative recovery of cardiac function.
Surveillance cultures of HCU water from the cardioplegia
and patient circuits and airflow samples from running HCUs at [approximately equal to]2-3 m distance were gathered in monthly intervals.
It is well known that coronary surgery appeared as a surgical interference on a beating heart and then was expanded in the form of CABG, including cardiopulmonary bypass or excluding any cardioplegia
, and it has been the basic surgical treatment method for patients with coronary heart diseases for over three decades .
Tubing pack with crystalloid cardioplegia
delivery system (Perfect, China), and an arterial Alter (Xi Jing, China) were used.