During early development, veins draining the body wall open initially into the posterior cardinal veins
. Later these inter-segmental veins drain into the supracardinal veins.
The inferior vena cava (IVC) regularly develops according to a complex process which involves three pairs of fetal veins: the posterior cardinal veins
, subcardinal veins, and supracardinal veins .
The posterior cardinal veins
persist as the caudal portion of the subrenal segment that gives the common iliac veins and the bifurcation.
During the vascular system development, three symmetric paired veins form the basis of the early venous system in the 4-week human embryo (symmetric stage), draining into the heart: vitelline veins, umbilical veins, and cardinal veins
(CVs) [20-22] (Figure 1(a)).
Derived from three pairs of embryonic veins (cardinal veins
, omphalomesenteric or vitelline veins, and umbilical veins), it primarily serves to direct a large volume of oxygenated blood from the placenta, past the liver, and directly into the right atrium.
Embryologically, the systemic veins of our body develop from the intra-embryonic anterior and posterior cardinal veins
, while the portal system develops from the extra-embryonic vitelline and umbilical veins which drain from the yolk sac and the placenta.
Duplication of IVC arises as a result of the persistence of the right and left supra cardinal and sub cardinal veins