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the yield or total of anything produced by any functional system of the body. When measuring output for a patient record, the volume of urine, drainage from tubes, vomitus, and any other measurable liquid should be recorded.
cardiac output the effective volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart per unit of time (generally per minute); it usually refers to left ventricle output. It is equal to the stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate. Normal values are 4 to 8 liters per minute.
decreased cardiac output a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a state in which inadequate blood is pumped by the heart to meet the metabolic demands of the body. The most obvious causative factors are pathologic changes in the heart's muscle or electrical conduction system, congenital heart defects, electrolyte imbalances (as of calcium or potassium), blood dyscrasias, and chronic pulmonary disease. Factors that could lead to changes in a patient's functional capacities because of decreased cardiac output might include physical exercise of a type or intensity that the patient cannot tolerate because of diminished oxygen supply, ingestion of large meals that place an added workload on the heart, obesity, retention of fluid (edema), hypovolemia or hypervolemia, emotional stress, and smoking.
Patient Care. Nursing interventions are planned only after a thorough nursing assessment has been conducted to collect the relevant subjective and objective data. For example, it may be that the patient will need instruction and guidance in limiting sodium intake, reducing caloric intake to lose excess fat and maintain normal body weight, decreasing fat consumption to reduce blood lipid levels, or otherwise striving for dietary management of the problem.
energy output the energy a body is able to manifest in work or activity.
stroke output stroke volume.
urinary output the amount of urine secreted by the kidneys. See also fluid balance.
the amount of blood ejected by the heart in a unit of time (that is, the minute volume), usually expressed in liters per minute.
Synonym(s): minute output
The volume of blood pumped from the right or left ventricle in one minute.
cardiac outputCardiology A measure of blood flow through the heart to the systemic circulation, expressed as volume of blood/unit time or L/min, calculated as left ventricular forward stroke X heart rate; CO is calculated by Fick method–O2 consumption divided by the AV O2 difference,
or by thermodilution, with Swan-Ganz catheterization. See Bradycardia, Tachycardia.
car·di·ac out·put(CO) (kahr'dē-ak owt'put)
The product of heart rate and stroke volume, measured in liters per minute; the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in 1 minute.
cardiac outputThe volume of blood pumped by the heart in one minute. It is equal to the stroke volume—the output per beat—multiplied by the number of beats per minute.
cardiac outputthe total volume of blood pumped out by the heart per unit time.
car·di·ac out·put(kahr'dē-ak owt'put)
Amount of blood ejected by the heart in a unit of time in liters per minute (L/min).