cardiac hypertrophy(redirected from cardiac enlargement)
increase in volume of a tissue or organ produced entirely by enlargement of existing cells. See also hyperplasia and proliferation. adj., adj hypertro´phic.
asymmetrical septal hypertrophy
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) age-associated enlargement of the prostate resulting from proliferation of glandular and stromal elements, beginning generally in the fifth decade of life; it may cause urethral compression and obstruction. Called also benign prostatic hyperplasia and nodular hyperplasia of the prostate.
cardiac hypertrophy enlargement of myocardial cells and hyperplasia of nonmuscular cardiac components due to pressure and volume overload and sometimes to neurohumoral factors.
compensatory hypertrophy that which results from an increased workload due to some physical defect, such as in an organ where one part is defective, or in one kidney when the other is absent or nonfunctional.
functional hypertrophy hypertrophy of an organ or part caused by its increased activity.
ventricular hypertrophy hypertrophy of the myocardium of a ventricle, due to chronic pressure overload; it is manifest electrocardiographically by increased QRS complex voltage, frequently accompanied by repolarization changes.
cardiac hypertrophyCompensatory enlargement of the heart, which may be physiologic, as occurs in athletes, or pathological, due to underlying cardiac disease—e.g., congestive heart failure, valve disease, hypertension.
• Pressure load hypertrophy—e.g., aortic valve stenosis; the left ventricular wall is thickened to 2 cm or more.
• Volume load hypertrophy—e.g., aortic valve regurgitation; the left ventricular cavity diameter is greatly increased; the wall is unchanged.
Determinants, left ventricular mass
Total body size, amount of regular physical exercise, blood pressure.