cardiac hypertrophy

(redirected from cardiac enlargement)

hypertrophy

 [hi-per´tro-fe]
increase in volume of a tissue or organ produced entirely by enlargement of existing cells. See also hyperplasia and proliferation. adj., adj hypertro´phic.
asymmetrical septal hypertrophy
2. the term is sometimes limited to cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the hypertrophy is localized to the interventricular septum. See also hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.
benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) age-associated enlargement of the prostate resulting from proliferation of glandular and stromal elements, beginning generally in the fifth decade of life; it may cause urethral compression and obstruction. Called also benign prostatic hyperplasia and nodular hyperplasia of the prostate.
cardiac hypertrophy enlargement of myocardial cells and hyperplasia of nonmuscular cardiac components due to pressure and volume overload and sometimes to neurohumoral factors.
compensatory hypertrophy that which results from an increased workload due to some physical defect, such as in an organ where one part is defective, or in one kidney when the other is absent or nonfunctional.
functional hypertrophy hypertrophy of an organ or part caused by its increased activity.
ventricular hypertrophy hypertrophy of the myocardium of a ventricle, due to chronic pressure overload; it is manifest electrocardiographically by increased QRS complex voltage, frequently accompanied by repolarization changes.

cardiac hypertrophy

Compensatory enlargement of the heart, which may be physiologic, as occurs in athletes, or pathological, due to underlying cardiac disease—e.g., congestive heart failure, valve disease, hypertension.

Types
• Pressure load hypertrophy—e.g., aortic valve stenosis; the left ventricular wall is thickened to 2 cm or more.
• Volume load hypertrophy—e.g., aortic valve regurgitation; the left ventricular cavity diameter is greatly increased; the wall is unchanged.

Determinants, left ventricular mass
Total body size, amount of regular physical exercise, blood pressure.

cardiac hypertrophy

Cardiac enlargement Compensatory enlargement of the heart, which may be pathologic, due to underlying cardiac disease–eg, CHF, valve disease, HTN, or physiologic, as in athletes. See Athlete's heart syndrome, Congestive heart failure.
References in periodicals archive ?
Twelve (35.3%) cases were associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis; of which, seven (20.6%) showed coronary artery stenosis (>50%), eight (23.5%) cases had cardiac enlargement, four (11.8%) cases presented with coronary myocardial bridge, and one patient (2.9%) had pericardial effusion.
Correlation of cardiac enlargement as assessed by vertebral heart size and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings in dogs with evolving cardiomegaly due to rapid ventricular pacing.
(a) Chest X-ray on admission showed cardiac enlargement and severe bilateral plural effusion.
In Pacing to Avoid Cardiac Enlargement trial [1] designed to compare biventricular pacing and right ventricular pacing with regards to left ventricular function in patients with standard indications for pacing, 8 of 9 patients in which the left ventricular ejection fraction decreased to less than 45% after 12 months of pacing were in the right ventricular pacing group.
Echocardiogram revealed worsening regurgitation, dilated pulmonary arteries, and pulmonary hypertension and a CT scan additionally demonstrated right sided cardiac enlargement, an atrial septal defect, and a patent ductus arteriosus (see Figure 3).
Criteria for diagnosing peripartum cardiomyopathy include a positive physical exam and history, a BNP of greater than 200, cardiac damage noted on the MRI, cardiac enlargement or pleural effusions seen on X-ray, and an EF less than 45% ( Hilfiker-Kleiner et al., 2015).
(1) Severe coelomic fluid accumulation, generalized cardiac enlargement, and distension of the pulmonary vasculature were noted on radiographs (Fig 2).
The patient's murmur prompted an echocardiogram, which revealed a large atrial-septal defect (ASD) with 4-chamber cardiac enlargement. However, the cardiac enlargement was out of proportion to the expected volume overload of the patient's ASD.
DISCUSSION: Dilated cardiomyopathy is a syndrome characterized by cardiac enlargement and impaired systolic function of one or both the ventricles.
In September, welder Gary McCrossan's death certificate revealed "cardiac enlargement and coronary artery disease" as the cause of his death.
Chest x-rays showed cardiac enlargement and the electrocardiogram (ECG) showed giant peaked P waves (right atrial hypertrophy) and right ventricular hypertrophy.
"Although his valvular heart disease is not uncommon for a 79-year-old, his aortic valve area is in the moderate-to-severe stage with evidence of cardiac enlargement and increased pressure gradients, which, considering his arrhythmia, may potentially be fatal if left untreated," Dy said.