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carcinoma[kahr″sĭ-no´mah] (pl. carcinomas, carcino´mata)
car·ci·no·ma (CA),, pl.
car·ci·no·ma·ta(kar'si-nō'mă, -măz, kar'si-nō'mă-tă),
Like other malignant neoplasms, carcinomas display uncontrolled cellular proliferation, anaplasia (regression of cells and tissues to more primitive or undifferentiated states), and a tendency to invade adjacent tissues and to spread to distant sites by metastasis. A carcinoma arises from a single cell with a genome that either contains an inherited aberration (oncogene) or has acquired one as a consequence of spontaneous mutation or damage by a chemical toxin (carcinogen), radiation, viral infection, chronic inflammation, or other external assault. Probably a complex sequence of biochemical and genetic injuries must take place for a carcinoma to develop. Some carcinomas (for example, prostate, breast) depend partly on the presence of hormones (androgen, estrogen) for their proliferation. Carcinomas are graded histologically according to evidence of invasiveness and changes that indicate anaplasia (loss of polarity of nuclei, loss of orderly maturation of cells particularly in squamous cell types, variation in the size and shape of cells, hyperchromatism of nuclei with clumping of chromatin, and increase in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio). Carcinomas may be undifferentiated, or the neoplastic tissue may resemble to varying degrees one of the types of normal epithelium. Carcinomas can secrete a variety of hormonelike factors capable of inducing systemic (paraneoplastic) effects (for example, hypercalcemia, thrombophlebitis). The most common site of origin of carcinoma in both sexes is the skin; the second most common site in men is the prostate and in women the breast. However, the most frequently lethal carcinoma in both sexes is bronchogenic carcinoma.
carcinomaOncology A malignant neoplasm of epithelial and occasionally neuroepithelial origin; carcinomas are divided according to tissue of origin–eg, glands–adenoCA, squamous epithelium–SCC, and bladder epithelium–transitional cell carcinoma; carcinomas may metastasize to bone, liver, lung, brain. See Acinic cell carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Adrenocortical carcinoma, Anaplastic carcinoma, Anaplastic carcinoma of pancreas, Anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, Basal cell carcinoma, Basaloid carcinoma, Carcinoma in situ, CASTLE, Chromophobe cell carcinoma, Clear cell carcinoma, Collecting duct carcinoma, Colloid carcinoma, Ductal carcinoma in situ, Duct cell carcinoma, Embryonal carcinoma, Endometrial carcinoma, Epithelial carcinoma, Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, Fibrolamellar carcinoma, Follicular carcinoma, Giant cell carcinoma, Glassy cell carcinoma, Hürthle cell carcinoma, Inflammatory carcinoma, In situ carcinoma, Intraductal carcinoma, Intramucosal carcinoma, Juvenile carcinoma, Krebs' carcinoma, Large cell carcinoma, Large cell undifferentiated carcinoma of lung, Laryngeal carcinoma, Lobular carcinoma in situ, Medullary carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, Microinvasive carcinoma, Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of cervix, 'Murky cell' carcinoma, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Non-small cell carcinoma of lung, Oat cell carcinoma, Ovarian small cell carcinoma–hypercalcemic type, Pleomorphic carcinoma, Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma, Renal cell carcinoma, Sarcomatoid carcinoma, Scirrhous carcinoma, Secretory carcinoma, Small cell carcinoma, Spindle cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Stump carcinoma, Superficial spreading carcinoma, Terminal duct carcinoma, Transglottic carcinoma, Transitional cell carcinoma, Tubular carcinoma, Undifferentiated carcinoma, Verrucous carcinoma. Cf Cancer.
car·ci·no·ma(CA, Ca), pl. carcinomas, pl. carcinomata (kahr'si-nō'mă, -măz, -mă-tă)
carcinoma(kar?sin-o'ma ) [ carcin- + -oma]
Optimal patient care includes: identifying and explaining to patient and family the type of cancer and its typical natural history; options for treatment, side effects of treatments, expected response of the cancer to the treatment, best predictions for recovery and life expectancy, availability of clinical trials, alternative and complementary therapies, and the potential benefit of referral to specialty cancer centers.
acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas
alveolar cell carcinoma
basal cell carcinomaAbbreviation: BCC
bronchogenic carcinomaLung cancer.
choroid plexus carcinoma
carcinoma of the colonSee: colorectal cancer
colorectal carcinomaColorectal cancer.
ductal carcinoma in situ of breastSee: ductal carcinoma in situ of breast
epidermoid carcinomaSquamous cell carcinoma.
giant cell carcinoma
carcinoma in situAbbreviation: CIS
oat cell carcinoma
carcinoma of pancreasPancreatic cancer.
pancreatic carcinomaPancreatic cancer.
papillary carcinoma of the thyroidSee: papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
renal cell carcinoma
Because of its location in the retroperitoneum, renal cell carcinoma may grow to a relatively large size before it manifests obvious symptoms. The most common findings are blood in the urine (hematuria), flank pain, or a flank mass. Some patients develop fevers, weight loss, or symptoms caused by hormones excreted by the tumor. These hormones (parathyroid-like hormone or erythropoietin) occasionally cause hypercalcemia or abnormal increases in the red blood cell count (erythrocytosis).
Surgical removal of the affected kidney may be curative for those patients whose tumor has not spread outside the perirenal fascia. Treatment options are less successful for patients with metastatic disease because renal cell carcinomas are relatively resistant to chemotherapy.
scirrhous carcinomaHard cancer.
small cell carcinomaOat cell carcinoma.
squamous cell carcinoma
transitional cell carcinoma
urothelial carcinomaTransitional cell carcinoma.
carcinomaAny CANCER of a surface layer (EPITHELIUM) of the body. Carcinomas are by far the commonest form of cancer and occur on any epithelium especially those of the glandular tissue of the breast, the skin (epidermis), the large bowel, the air tubes (bronchi) of the lungs, and the womb (uterus). Compare SARCOMA.
carcinomaa malignant tumour of epithelial tissue. See CANCER.
basal cell carcinoma (BCC) A slow growing tumour derived from the basal cells of the epidermis of the skin. It is mainly located on the head and neck and most commonly on the eyelids, especially the lower eyelid. Old people who have had extensive sun exposure are primarily affected. It appears, initially, as a raised nodule with a pearly surface with small, dilated blood vessels on its surface and it may eventually become ulcerated (rodent ulcer) and invade other tissues but rarely metastasizes. Treatment includes surgical excision or cryotherapy.
sebaceous gland carcinoma A malignant tumour arising from the meibomian glands or occasionally from the glands of Zeis. It frequently affects the upper eyelids of old people. Initially the tumour resembles a chalazion or a chronic blepharitis. However, this tumour is aggressive and may invade the orbit. It may metastasize. Treatment usually consists of thorough surgical excision. See blepharitis; chalazion.
squamous cell carcinoma A malignant skin cancer that affects the eyelids and conjunctiva. It is aggressive and may metastasize. It occurs most commonly in old people who have had extensive sun exposure. Treatment consists mainly of surgical excision. See xeroderma pigmentosum.
car·ci·no·ma(CA), pl. carcinomas, pl. carcinomata (kahr'si-nō'mă, -măz, -mă-tă)
Patient discussion about carcinoma
Q. Can any one give me information about Carcinoma of the pancreas? What is the prognosis for carcinoma of the pancreas? I want to know as much as I can information on carcinoma of the pancreas.
Sorry for the bad news…
Q. Do japanese in the US still have high risk of stomach cancer? I was born in the US to parents that emigrated from Japan when they were in their late twenties. I know that people in Japan have a very high risk of stomach cancer. Does that mean that as an individual of Japanese origin I also have high risk, although I never were in Japan?
Q. what is the most accurate pathological test to identify the primary source of a cystic mass in the neck? the mass was removed. Pathologist was unable to identify the source and diagnosed the mass as a branchilogic carcinmoa (which is extremely rare, if exists at all). Therefore, I am looking for the most updated test and examinations that can be applied to blocks of the mass and determine their origin (primary source)