The 2-year rodent carcinogenicity
bioassays are associated with high costs, high animal burden, a long time frame (often [greater than or equal to]3 years), limited accuracy, and the uncertainty associated with extrapolating from rodents to humans.
In this review we focus primarily on chemicals, metals, dusts, and physical agents for which there is widespread human exposure, predominantly in occupational settings, and we address unresolved questions regarding carcinogenicity
. Most of these agents are in IARC Groups 2A and 2B--agents for which there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity
in animals but limited evidence for carcinogenicity
In the chemical selection process, we prioritized chemicals with long-term rodent liver carcinogenicity
annotation for inclusion in this experiment.
The human toxicity and carcinogenicity
of nanomaterials is currently unknown.
The assessment of repeated-dose systemic toxicity, carcinogenicity
and developmental and reproductive toxicity represent essential components of the safety assessment of all types of substances, being among the endpoints of highest concern.
A working group of scientists convened by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the cancer agency of the World health Organisation (WHO), recently met to evaluate the carcinogenicity
of drinking coffee, mate, and very hot beverages.
The popular herbicide had faced an uncertain future amid conflicting advice on its possible carcinogenicity
Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food and environmental samples is a rapidly growing area due to increasing concern about the toxicity and carcinogenicity
of some isomers.
"Since joining BASi in 1997, Philip has always maintained a high level of focus on our clients'needs throughout the full range of both GLP and non-GLP Preclinical and Nonclinical services including Discovery, PKPD, acute & chronic toxicology, DART, juvenile toxicology, and carcinogenicity
studies supporting END and NDA enabling programs offered at the BASi facility located near Evansville, IN.
Among the topics are differential toxicity characteristics of green alternative chemicals, understanding mechanisms of metabolic transformations as a tool for designing safer chemicals, informing substitution to safer alternatives, life-cycle concepts for the sustainable use of engineered nanomaterials in nanoproducts, greener chelating agents, improvements to the performance of synthetic-based drilling muds, reducing carcinogenicity
and mutagenicity through the mechanism-based molecular design of chemicals, designing for non-persistence, and the interaction of chemicals with the endocrine system.
As I wrote in the Precautionary Principle article in this issue, there are between seventy-five and eighty-five thousand different synthetic chemicals now in regular use; of these, fewer than ten percent have actually been tested for carcinogenicity
. The charity's website www.cancerpreventionsociety.org is a good source of links to research about the human health effects of chemicals in our food and environment.
Usage of the TDCPP chemical in baby pajamas had been stopped in 1977 over concerns of its carcinogenicity