Carbonyl chemistry, carboxylic acid derivatives
, and carbohydrates are discussed before concluding with special topics in biochemistry, orbital symmetry, and intramolecular reactions.
In acidic solution, the weak nucleophile water attacks carbonyl carbon atom, having protonated oxygen atom; then carboxylic acid derivatives
and alcohol groups are formed .
Similarly, the Sr-mediated esterification was used successfully with bulky tert-alcohols with carboxylic acid derivatives
. Esterification of secondary and tertiary alcohols is notoriously difficult but they are fundamental organic synthesis reactions.