carbonic anhydrase inhibitor


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to carbonic anhydrase inhibitor: acetazolamide

inhibitor

 [in-hib´ĭ-tor]
1. any substance that interferes with a chemical reaction, growth, or other biologic activity.
2. a chemical substance that inhibits or checks the action of a tissue organizer or the growth of microorganisms.
3. an effector that reduces the catalytic activity of an enzyme.
ACE i's (angiotensin-converting enzyme i's) see angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
angiogenesis inhibitor a group of drugs that prevent growth of new blood vessels into a solid tumor.
aromatase i's a class of drugs that inhibit aromatase activity and thus block production of estrogens; used to treat breast cancer and endometriosis.
C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) a member of the serpin group, an inhibitor of C1, the initial component activated in the classical complement pathway. Deficiency of or defect in the protein causes hereditary angioedema.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor an agent that inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase; used in treatment of glaucoma and sometimes for epilepsy, familial periodic paralysis, acute mountain sickness, and kidney stones of uric acid.
cholinesterase inhibitor anticholinesterase.
COX-2 i's (cyclooxygenase-2 i's) a group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs that act by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 activity; they have fewer gastrointestinal side effects than other NSAIDs. Two members of the group are celecoxib and rofecoxib.
gastric acid pump inhibitor an agent that inhibits gastric acid secretion by blocking the action of H+,K+-ATPase at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cells; called also proton pump i.
HIV protease inhibitor any of a group of antiretroviral drugs active against the human immunodeficiency virus; they prevent protease-mediated cleavage of viral polyproteins, causing production of immature viral particles that are noninfective. Examples include indinavir sulfate, nelfinavir mesylate, ritonavir, and saquinavir.
HMG-CoA reductase i's a group of drugs that competitively inhibit the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, and are used to lower plasma lipoprotein levels in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia. Called also statins.
membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL) protectin.
monoamine oxidase inhibitor any of a group of drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase, the enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine and serotonin, prescribed for their antidepressant action; the most widely used ones are isocarboxazid, phenelzine, and tranylcypromine. They are also used in the prevention of migraine.
α2-plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin.
plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) any of several regulators of the fibrinolytic system that act by binding to and inhibiting free plasminogen activator. Their concentration in plasma is normally low, but is altered in some disturbances of bodily hemostasis. PAI-1 is an important fast-reacting inhibitor of t-plasminogen activator and u-plasminogen activator. Its synthesis, activity, and release are highly regulated; elevated levels of it have been described in a number of disease states. PAI-2 is a normally minor inhibitor that greatly increases in concentration during pregnancy and in certain disorders. PAI-3 is protein C inhibitor.
platelet inhibitor any of a group of agents that inhibit the clotting activity of platelets; the most common ones are aspirin and dipyridamole. See also antiplatelet therapy.
protease inhibitor
1. a substance that blocks activity of endopeptidase (protease), such as in a virus.
protein C inhibitor the primary inhibitor of activated anticoagulant protein C; it is a glycoprotein of the serpin family of proteinase inhibitors and also inhibits several other proteins involved in coagulation (thrombin, kallikrein, and coagulation factors X and XI) and urokinase. Called also plasminogen activator inhibitor 3.
proton pump inhibitor gastric acid pump i.
reverse transcriptase inhibitor a substance that blocks activity of the reverse transcriptase of a retrovirus and is used as an antiretroviral agent. Some are nucleosides or nucleoside analogues, and those that are not are therefore often called non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) any of a group of drugs that inhibit the inactivation of serotonin by blocking its absorption in the central nervous system; used as antidepressants and in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.
serine protease inhibitor (serine proteinase inhibitor) serpin.
topoisomerase i's a class of antineoplastic agents that interfere with the arrangement of DNA in cells.

car·bon·ate de·hy·dra·tase in·hib·i·tor

an agent, usually chemically related to the sulfonamides, that inhibits the activity of carbonate dehydratase, producing a general decrease in the formation of H2CO3 in the tissues.
See also: acetazolamide.

carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

A sulphonamide diuretic—e.g., acetazolamide, dichlorphenamide, methazolamide—which inhibits carbonic anhydrase and cause metabolic acidosis.

Indications
Glaucoma, diuretics, seizures, migraines, intracranial hypertension, peptic ulcers, acute mountain sickness, osteoporosis and possibly sleep apnoea.

Adverse effects
Paraesthesias of fingers and toes, altered taste, blurred vision, kidney stones, interference with other drugs—e.g., amphetamines, metabolic acidosis.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

A class of diuretic drugs that inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme involved in producing bicarbonate, which is required for aqueous humor production by the ciliary tissues in the eye. Thus, inhibitors of this enzyme inhibit aqueous humor production. Some side effects are urinary frequency, kidney stones, loss of the sense of taste, depression, and anemia.
Mentioned in: Glaucoma
References in periodicals archive ?
Supuran, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in the treatment and prophylaxis of obesity, Expert Opin.
Somma et al., "A new approach to antiglaucoma drugs: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with or without NO donating moieties.
Persistence of altered taste receptors either locally or centrally secondary to ingestion of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may account for this phenomenon or may be totally unrelated.
Supuran, "Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: E7070, a sulfonamide anticancer agent, potently inhibits cytosolic isozymes I and II, and transmembrane, tumor-associated isozyme IX," Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol.
Decreased macular thickness in nonproliferative macular telangiectasia type 2 with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Retina.
In clinical practice, most patients begin the anti-glaucoma treatments with a single topical drug such as prostaglandin analogs, [sz]-blockers, a-agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. However, the IOP reduction effect of single anti-glaucoma medication is not effective in the prevention of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
After initial emergency management, IOP control may be maintained with a combination of topical hypotensive drugs such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, cholinergic agents, adrenergic agonists or antagonists, and prostaglandin analogs.
Effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors on Anopheles albimanus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)
* Topical aqueous suppressants: beta-blockers, adrenergic agents, alpha-2 agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
19 patients were on local IOP-lowering medications (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, fi-blockers, brimonidine, prostaglandins, or combinations).
They cover carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and activators, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, bacterial zinc protease inhibitors, and other enzymes containing zinc.

Full browser ?