carbohydrate metabolism


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Related to carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis

car·bo·hy·drate me·tab·o·lism

oxidation, breakdown, and synthesis of carbohydrates in the tissues.

carbohydrate metabolism

the sum of the anabolic and catabolic processes of the body involved in the synthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates, principally glucose, fructose, and galactose. Some of the processes are glycogenesis and glycolysis. Energy-rich phosphate bonds are produced in many metabolic reactions requiring carbohydrates.

carbohydrate metabolism

A general term for any metabolic activity—e.g., breakdown of starches and sugars into smaller units—to be used for energy, or the storage of same in polymeric units—e.g., glycogen storage.

carbohydrate

a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the latter two usually in the proportions of water (CH2O)n. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, poly- and heterosaccharides. Carbohydrates in food are an important and immediate source of energy for the body; 1 gram of carbohydrate yields 3.75 calories (16 kilojoules). They are present, at least in small quantities, in most foods, but the chief sources are the sugars and starches of plants. Herbivores are able to utilize the insoluble polysaccharides (crude fiber) because of bacterial conversion to volatile fatty acids by fermentation in the rumen and cecum.
Carbohydrates may be stored in the body as glycogen for future use. If they are eaten in excessive amounts they are converted to and stored as fat. Rapid ingestion of very large amounts in ruminants and horses causes carbohydrate engorgement.

complex carbohydrate
polysaccharides containing either α- and β-type glycosidic bonds. Usually occurring in mixtures in food.
dietary carbohydrate
the carbohydrate components of food.
carbohydrate loading
depletion/repletion means of maximally loading glycogen into type II muscle for increased power of muscle contraction.
carbohydrate loss
glucose loss in urine due to diabetes mellitus or chronic renal disease.
carbohydrate metabolism
series of related enzymic reactions involved in the synthesis and catabolism of carbohydrates.
carbohydrate tolerance test
see glucose tolerance test.
References in periodicals archive ?
Because of reduced carbohydrate metabolism, poor glucose uptake and chronic low-grade inflammation, those with SCI should limit grain intake to one serving of whole grains a day and focus on increasing intake of complex carbohydrates such as vegetables, legumes and lentils.
Preparation of exam paper: After completion of carbohydrate metabolism, a test was arranged that comprised of problem-solving questions (A-type MCQs), and declarative knowledge questions (SEQs).
Altered host tissue carbohydrate metabolism and defects in the enzymes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism are observed in cancer patients.
Carbohydrate metabolism is far more complicated than the release of glucose as energy.
Additionally, thyroid hormone may further affect carbohydrate metabolism through interactions with leptin, adiponectin, and gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin.
Aim of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of AA on the activities of hepatic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Thiamine / vitamin Bi is required for nervous system functioning, carbohydrate metabolism, and optimum immune system functioning.
gregaria, may be caused by interference of these IGRs with hormonal actions on carbohydrate metabolism (Orr 1964; Price 1973; Imboden & Luscher 1976).
Atherosclerosis, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD), is not a disease of carbohydrate metabolism and there is no evidence to support the measurement of carbohydrate or insulin resistance to identify atherosclerosis risk.
Dr Ogata has been practising medicine for over 30 years, specialises in neonatology and his special interests include neonatal hypoglycemia, infants of diabetic mothers, diabetes mellitus and carbohydrate metabolism.

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