perfringens type D was sensitive to tetracycline (32 mm), ciprofloxacin (27 mm), sulfamethoxazole (25 mm), gentamicin (20 mm), erythromycin (20 mm), kanamycin (20 mm), and streptomycin (13 mm) while carbenicillin
, amoxicillin, penicillin g, colistin sulphate, bacitracin and metronidazole showed resistance against C.
Induction media cultures consisted of A1/2 MS medium supplemented with carbenicillin
(250 mg L-1) and 2,4-D (10 mg L-1).
Next, 50 or 100 [micro]l of media was collected from these cultures and spread on 2% LB agar plates supplemented with 1% carbenicillin
to select for P.
* Penicillins: Penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-c (Augmentin), carbenicillin
, piperacillin-tazobactam (Zosyn)
[10,11] Most of the strains are susceptible to ceftazidime (95%), piperacillin, minocycline, and cefotaxime and resistant to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, carbenicillin
, and ticarcillin.
(2004) found 100% resistance to sulfadiazine and widespread resistance to amikacin, carbenicillin
, erythromycin, and penicillin in Pasteurella multocida isolates from chickens and other birds from 11 separate states in India.
The antibiotics investigated in the study included penicillins (ampicillin, carbenicillin
and piperacillin), 1st generation cephalosporins (cephalothin), 2nd generation cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefoxitin and cefaclor), 3rd generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime), 4th generation cephalosporins (cefepime) carbapenems (imipenem) and monocyclic lactams (aztreonam).
While clinical isolates of Aeromonas have been found to have wide ranging antibiotic sensitivity, they are almost all resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin
, and cefazolin .
Several antibiotics have been proven to be effective against Fusobacterium, such as penicillin, lincomycin, clindamycin, and carbenicillin
Antibiotics such as Ampicillin (Fig 2), Carbenicillin
(Fig 3), Streptomycin (Fig 4) have been discovered to treat diseases caused by pathogens like bacteria, fungi, virus and ricketteseas .
Antibiogram test performed by using Muller-Hinton agar (Hi media/ India) and different antibiotic discs (Bioanalyse/Mast and Oxoid) including: Ampicillin-Sulbactam (SAM) (10/10[micro]g), Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AUG) (20/10[micro]g), Amikacin (AK) (30[micro]g), Cefepime (CPM) (30 [micro]g), Cefoxitin (FOX) (30 [micro]g), Cefazolin (CZ) (30 [micro]g), Cefotaxime (CTX) (30[micro]g), Ceftazidime (CAZ) ([micro]g), Carbenicillin
(CB) (100 [micro]g), Ciprofloxacin (CIP) (5[micro]g), Nalidixic acid (NA) (30 [micro]g), Gentamicin (GM) (10[micro]g), Tobramycin (TN) (10 [micro]g),Temocillin (TEM) (30[micro]g), and Tetracycline (TE) (30[micro]g).
aeruginosa specimens, it was found that 29 of them were 100% resistant to carbenicillin