Therefore, we investigated the three-step carbamylation
reaction of diethylene triamine (DA) with urea in pyridine, n-butanol, and pentanols and also using polar cosolvent additions to find an efficient synthesis procedure of D, aiming at one that can be scaled up for industrial production.
Carbamtes cause carbamylation
of important serine residues on the AChE molecule but in a reversible manner (Colovic et al., 2013; Gupta, 2006).
Valesini, "Post-translational modifications in rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis: focus on citrullination and carbamylation
," Journal of International Medical Research, vol.
Chen, "Crystal structures of vertebrate dihydropyrimidinase and complexes from Tetraodon nigroviridis with lysine carbamylation
: metal and structural requirements for post-translational modification and function," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
It is known that urea at the concentration seen in patients with CRF can increase carbamylation
of intracellular proteins (9).
In CKD, high blood urea concentrations result in increased protein carbamylation
where isocyanic acid is attached covalently to arginine or lysine residues.
Homocitrulline is formed by the carbamylation
of lysine residues and results in loss of the biological activity of lysine .
The three PTMs primarily involved in rheumatoid arthritis are glycosylation, carbamylation
, and citrullination .
Vuiblet et al., "Protein carbamylation
is a hallmark of aging," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.
Factors determining hemoglobin carbamylation
in renal failure.
In CKD patients there is a relative increase in IDL (intermediate density lipoproteins) and small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles which undergo further modifications like glycation, oxidation and carbamylation
, making them highly atherogenic.