and Other Large-Scale Recombination Events in Invasive Sequence Type 1 Group B Streptococcus
The case of a new sequence type 7 serogroup X Neisseria meningitidis infection in China: may capsular switching
change serogroup profile?
Mechanisms for changes in serotype prevalence include serotype replacement and capsular switching
(genetic serotype switch in individual organisms) (14).
in group B Streptococcus CC17 hypervirulent clone: a future challenge for polysaccharide vaccine development.
Recombination leading to capsular switching
has been reported numerous times in GBS (3, 6, 8).
So-called capsular switching
might have contributed to increasing non-PCV7 serotype disease (28).
meningitidis core genome amino acid sequences showed that all 22 sequenced CC4821 strains were closely related, irrespective of serogroup, ST, and PorA type, which indicated capsular switching
between serogroups C and B.
However, this association could be disrupted because of capsular switching
caused mainly by recombination of capsular genetic loci.
also is associated with recombination of PBP genes, considering that pbp1a and pbp2x genes which mediate [beta]-lactam resistance, are positioned at both ends of the cps region.
has been observed among pneumococcal serotypes after the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in the United States, although the substantial declines in incidence of pneumococcal disease were maintained overall (25).
Some of these clones, namely, cc11 and cc32, have undergone capsular switching
, which occurs through transformation and horizontal gene transfer, enables N.