After tracheal intubation was finished, chest auscultation revealed severe wheezing over the bilateral lung field with a high end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO[sub]2) 67 mmHg and a sharp slope of capnogram
. Therefore, bronchospasm was considered.
An adequate ventilation was defined as the chest expansion with satisfactory compliance and normal square-wave capnogram
. If it was not possible to ventilate adequately via face mask, the subject was excluded.
Monitoring of vital parameters such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate, oxygen saturation, ECG, capnogram
and core temperature was performed.
Most commonly seen in clinical practice is the time-based capnogram
(see Figure 1, above).
Neural network analysis of the volumetric capnogram
to detect pulmonary embolism.
The monitor integrates end-tidal [CO.sub.2] and expiratory flow measurements to generate volumetric capnogram
waveforms and numerics.
Bronchospasm detected by auscultation (intense wheezing) was confirmed by tidal volume reduction (hypoventilation) and increased peak airway pressures, prolonged expiration with visible upslope on the capnogram
and bronchospasm caused arterial blood oxygen desaturation and hypoventilation according to repeated arterial blood gas samples, following insertion of a radial arterial line.
The cuff can be monitored using a capnogram
for any rupture or displacement.
Following insertion, the position of the cLMA was checked for airway patency by either observing the patient's respiratory movement and the capnogram
when breathing spontaneously, or in apnoeic patients observing for chest expansion and the capnogram
during manual ventilation.