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adenosine

 [ah-den´o-sēn]
1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
Adenosine.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.

cAMP

Abbreviation for adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP).

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

cAMP

abbr.
cyclic AMP

cAMP

cAMP

Abbreviation for adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate.

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate.
References in periodicals archive ?
And while the site serves around 100 pitches, those looking for a more luxurious retreat can relax in two glamping tents nicknamed "Betty" and "Harry" - named after two regulars at the campsite - that come complete with a kitchen.
The Troodos campsite had the same fate and was closed down in 2012 due to illegal constructions that raised safety concerns.
The baboons and vervet monkeys were troublesome, but a lot of that was due to our carelessness in dealing with rubbish and not locking everything away in our cars each time we left the campsite.
The campsite will be allowed to be open from March 31 to October 31 each year.
The campsite will advise you of any nights during your stay which are excluded from the offer.
The tourists who will stay at the campsite can enjoy the sight of Markhor besides 129 bird species and 20 mammals.
A multilevel logistic regression model with a random effect for campsite was used to compare illnesses among 18 children assigned to the two campsites where guano was identified, 32 children assigned to two campsites [less than or equal to] 20 yards from campsites with guano, and 92 children assigned to eight campsites [greater than or equal to] 21 yards from campsites with guano (referent group).
French police have fanned out across southeastern France in search of a rapist who is targeting young girls in campsites.
Speaking at the scene, Sergeant Heather McNicol added: "Overnight, we were called to Holmsley campsite after the death of a six-year-old girl.
You'll need one differently numbered voucher for each night you book; present these on arrival at the campsite.
Terrified Britons were among thousands of holidaymakers evacuated from campsites after a wildfire rage through the south of France this weekend.
Low-cost Irish airline Ryanair has announced that it has entered a partnership with Alan Rogers Travel, a UK publisher of campsite guide books.